Classification of Crop based on Life Span: Annual, Biennial and Perennial Crops

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<h1><strong>ANNUAL, BIENNIAL AND PERENNIAL CROPS</strong></h1> CONTENT Classification of Crops based on Life Span; <ol> <li>Annual Crops (e.g. maize, yam, etc.)</li> <li>Biennial Crops (e.g. ginger, pineapple, cassava, etc)</li> <li>Perennial Crops (e.g cocoa, mango, etc.)</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Classification of Crops based on Life Span</strong></h2> Crops complete their processes of growth at different lengths of time. Hence, crops can be classified as follows - annual, biennial and perennial. <h2><strong>Annual Crops</strong></h2> Annual crops are crops which complete their life cycle (length of life) within one year or in one growing season. These crops grow into maturity, flower, produce seeds and eventually die within one year. Examples are maize, rice, sorghum, soya-beans, guinea corn, cowpea, sweet potato, cotton, tomato, yam, etc.

Dispersal of Weeds (Weed Dissemination)

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<h1><strong>DISPERSAL OF WEEDS (WEED DISSEMINATION)</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Introduction</li> <li>Meaning of Weed Dispersal</li> <li>Agents of Weed Dispersal</li> </ol> <h2><strong>Introduction</strong></h2> Weeds are widely dispersed through various adaptations. This is one of the reasons why weeds survive and are found in almost all cultivated fields. <h2><strong>Meaning of Weed Dispersal </strong></h2> This is the process by which seeds of weeds, fruits and propagules are carried from one place to another through one agent or the other. <h2><strong>Agents</strong> <strong>of Weed Dispersal</strong></h2> The agents of weed dispersal include the following:

Post-harvesting Operations

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<h1><strong>POST-HARVESTING OPERATIONS</strong></h1> CONTENT <strong>Post-Harvesting Operations</strong> <ol> <li>Farm Level Processing - Methods of Processing; Importance of Processing</li> <li>Storage - Meaning of Storage and Importance of Storage</li> <li>Marketing</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Post-Harvesting Operations</strong></h2> Post-harvesting operations include the following: <ol> <li>Farm level processing</li> <li>Storage</li> <li>Marketing</li> </ol> <h3>1.<strong> Farm Level Processing</strong></h3> These are series of activities used in converting harvested farm produce into clean and marketable forms. After harvesting, crops need to be processed so that they can be consumed or stored for future use. <h4><strong>Methods of Processing</strong></h4> (i) Shelling (ii) Dehusking

Pricing and Advertising

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<h1><strong>PRICING AND ADVERTISING</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Definition of Pricing</li> <li>Meaning of Advertising</li> <li>Pricing Strategy</li> <li>Price Determinants</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Definition of Pricing</strong></h2> <strong>Price</strong> means the amount of money that is offered or asked for when something is bought or sold. <strong>Pricing</strong> is the placing of price on a particular farm produce that will suit the customers and fetch higher income to the farmer. Farmers also promote their products and services through such techniques as advertising and personalized sales, which serve to inform potential customers and motivate them to purchase. <h2><strong>Meaning of Advertising</strong></h2> <strong>Advertising</strong> is a means by which a farmer tells the would-be consumers about the existence of a product, the quality, the uses and the price of such produce. Four elements are normally distinguished: getting the right product to the market; selling the product at the right price; ensuring that the promotion is right - that is, advertising and marketing for the product; and ensuring that the product is distributed to the most convenient place for customers to buy it. <h2><strong>Pricing Strategy</strong></h2> Pricing strategy is defined as the method adopted by the business to set its selling price. The step implemented by a firm to determine the optimum price of a product, and the strategy includes:

Meaning and Importance of Agricultural Ecology

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<h1><strong>MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL ECOLOGY</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Introduction to Agricultural Ecology and Ecosystem</li> <li>Meaning of Agro-ecology and Ecosystem</li> <li>Definition of Agricultural Ecology</li> <li>Components of Farm Ecosystem</li> <li>Interactions of the Terrestrial and Aquatic Agro Ecosystem</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Introduction to Agricultural Ecology and Ecosystem</strong></h2> The goal of agriculture is to provide food for the nation. The business of agriculture is carried out within the ecosystem. Therefore the environment is very important because it constitutes all the physical surrounding around us. All the living organisms that have been domesticated by man in agriculture are all the components of the environment. These domesticated plant and animal species interact together in the environment to form the agro-ecological system.   <h2><strong>Meaning of Agro-ecology and Ecosystem</strong></h2> Ecology is the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment. The study of an individual organism or a single species is termed autecology while the study of groups of organisms is called synecology. Human activites have interfered with the complex ecological relationships. Such human activities include agricultural activities like: <ul> <li>Large scale farming that involves the use of pesticides, herbicide, insecticides etc.</li> <li>Expansive land clearing</li> <li>Oil exploration.</li> <li>Construction</li> <li>Urbanization</li> </ul> These have seriously disturbed the natural balance in the ecosystems.   <h2><strong>Definition of Agricultural Ecology

Meaning and Importance of Ornamental Plants

Unfortunately we could not locate the table you're looking for.<h1>MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Ornamental Plants</li> <li>Common Ornamental Plants Found in Nigeria</li> <li>Importance of Ornamental Plants</li> <li>Types of Ornamental Plants According to their Uses</li> <li>Settings and Location for Planting Each Type of Ornamental Plant</li> <li>Methods of Cultivating and Planting Ornamental Plants</li> <li>Maintenance of Ornamental Plants</li> </ol>   <h2>Meaning of Ornamental Plants</h2> Ornamental plants are plants (trees, shrubs, or herbs) which are used for different purposes by man. Ornamental plants can also be seen as plants that are cultivated or grown to beautify or decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects such as houses, walk ways , parks and indoors. They are also planted and arranged or placed where they will thrive for a useful purpose. The study of ornamental plants is called floriculture. The person who grows or sells flowers is called a florist There are different types of ornamental plants which can be used for different purposes.   <h2>Common Ornamental Plants Found in Nigeria</h2> The following are common ornamental plants found in Nigeria:   <h2>Importance of Ornamental Plants</h2> Ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers have various uses, hence their importance for our well-being. (i) Landscaping: <ul> <li>Flowers are used to beautify residential and office buildings as well as playground.</li> <li>The plants whose flowers are attractive , colorful and sweet smelling are used for this purpose.</li> </ul> (ii) Provision of shade: <ul> <li>Many ornamental shrubs and trees such as Odan- <em>Ficus spp</em> and Almond tree are used to provide shade around houses especially in villages.</li> </ul> (iii) Wind break: <ul> <li>Closely spaced tall ornamental shrubs and trees are usually planted close to buildings to act as wind break.</li> <li>Wind break trees add to the beauty of the areas. An example of wind break trees are teak, Ashoka (Police tree).</li> </ul> (iv) Screening and delineation of areas: <ul> <li>Ornamental plants can be used to screen a place such as house from the prying eyes of strangers.</li> <li>Used to delineate areas from one another by using it for demarcation.</li> </ul> (v) Hedge plants: <ul> <li>Ornamental hedge plants can be used to prevent easy access for intruders into compounds because they are closely spaced and some with thorns.</li> </ul> (vi) Decoration: <ul> <li>Live fresh flowers put in vases are used to decorate living rooms.</li> <li>Some potted ornamental plants are raised and placed at the porches of houses or offices.</li> <li>At weddings, funerals, workshops seminars beautiful flowers are used for decoration, thus adding colour to the occasion.</li> </ul> (vii) Used as spot plants:

Qualities, Functions and Problems of Farm Managers

<h1>QUALITIES, FUNCTIONS AND PROBLEMS OF FARM MANAGERS</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Qualities of a Farm Manager</li> <li>Functions of a Farm Manager</li> <li>Problems of a Farm Manager</li> </ol>   <h2>Qualities of a Farm Manager</h2> A farm manager must be; <ol> <li>literate and current.</li> <li>innovative and flexible.</li> <li>willing to accept responsibilities.</li> <li>wise in decision making.</li> <li>firm and impartial in the affairs of his staff.</li> <li>diligent and hard working.</li>

Marketing of Agricultural Produce

<h1>MARKETING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Agricultural Marketing</li> <li>Importance of Agricultural Marketing</li> <li>Marketing Agents</li> <li>Marketing Channels</li> </ol>   <h2>Meaning of Agricultural Marketing</h2> Agricultural marketing involves all the stages of operations which aid the movement of agricultural produce/commodities from the farms to the final consumers. Marketing involves assembling, storing, transporting, processing, grading of goods and financing of all these activities. It also involves the supply of raw materials to processing industries and sales of processed products.   <h2>Importance of Agricultural Marketing</h2> The following are the importance of agricultural marketing: <ol> <li>It creates a link between Farmers and the final Consumers.</li> <li>It leads to the creation of employment to the agents involved in marketing</li> <li>It makes the supply of seasonal goods possible throughout the year with little or no variation in price</li> <li>It helps to prevent wastage of produced agricultural products</li> <li>It stimulates the Government to provide infrastructure like roads, water, storage facilities, etc.</li> <li>It makes goods produced in the rural areas to be readily made available in the urban areas where agricultural goods are not usually produced</li> <li>It enables producers to determine and know the Consumer’s taste</li> <li>It ensures prompt sales of agricultural produce which increases the farmers’ revenue and profit</li> <li>It stimulates researches into the techniques of food preservation and preparation to meet the Consumer’s taste.</li> </ol> EVALUATION <ol> <li>What is Agricultural Marketing?/Explain the term <em>marketing in agriculture</em>.</li> <li>State five importance of marketing in agriculture.</li> </ol>   <h2>Marketing Agents</h2> Marketing agents are the people or corporate bodies that are directly or indirectly involved in the free flow of farm produce from the farm to the consumer. They include the following:

Classification of Crops based on Uses of Crops

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<h1><strong>CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS BASED ON USES OF CROPS</strong></h1> CONTENT Classification of Crops based on Uses of Crops <ol> <li>Food and Feed Crops</li> <li>Fibre Crops</li> <li>Oil Crops</li> <li>Latex Crops</li> <li>Beverage Crops</li> <li>Spice Crops</li> <li>Forage Crops</li> <li>Sugar Crops</li> <li>Drug Crops</li> <li>Stimulant Crops</li> <li>Ornamental Crops</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Classification of Crop based on Uses of Crops</strong></h2> Agricultural crops can also be classified on the basis of their economic products or uses. In this classification a crop may belong to more than one group. <h2><strong>Food and Feed Crops: </strong></h2> These crops are produced mainly for consumption by man or livestock. Their various parts are eaten raw, cooked or processed. Food crops can be grouped into the following classes: (i) Cereal crops (ii) Legumes (iii) Vegetable crops (iv) Root and tuber crops (v) Fruit crops <h3><strong>Cereal Crops</strong>:</h3> These crops belong to the grass family called Gramineae. They are grown for their seeds or grains and are rich in carbohydrates (starch). Some grains are ground into powder. Bread is made from wheat and rye flour. Breakfast food, cakes and pastries and livestock feeds are also made from cereals. Examples are rice, millet, rye, maize, sorghum (guinea corn), wheat, barley, oats, acha. etc. The most important cereal crops are rice, wheat and corn. <img class="size-full wp-image-32083 aligncenter" src="" alt="Classification of Crop based on Uses of Crops" width="498" height="156" />

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