Factors Affecting the Distribution of Livestock in Nigeria

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<h1><strong>FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION OF LIVESTOCK IN NIGERIA</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Factors Affecting the Distribution of Livestock in Nigeria</li> <li>Table Showing Terms Associated With Some Farm Animals</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Factors Affecting the Distribution of Livestock in Nigeria</strong></h2> The population of certain kinds of farm animal is more in certain areas than in others. There are factors responsible. Up to 80% of grazing livestock is to be found in the savanna zone of northern Nigeria. This is because of the following factors: 1. <strong>Food/Availability of good pasture</strong>: This constitutes the bulk of the feed of livestock. Large expanse of grassland is abundant in northern Nigeria, and for this reason there is greater population of cattle, sheep and goats, which graze on the pasture grasses and legumes found in this area than in southern Nigeria. 2.<strong> Climate: </strong>Animal production is usually affected adversely by too hot or too cold weather conditions. For instance, pigs do not have sweat glands, so they do not perspire; rearing them in a hot climate will greatly reduce their efficiency. Moreover, the growth and multiplication of pests and diseases is also encouraged by high temperature and rainfall, and this hinders the growth and performance of livestock.

Factors of Production: Entrepreneur or Management

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<h1><strong>FACTORS OF PRODUCTION - ENTREPRENEUR OR MANAGEMENT</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Entrepreneur or Management</li> <li>Characteristics of Management</li> <li>Importance of Entrepreneur or Management in Agricultural Production</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Entrepreneur or Management</strong></h2> An entrepreneur or management refers to the person or group of persons who organize, co-ordinate and control the use of other factors of production. This is the person responsible for directing the affairs of the farm’s administration. He is the farm manager and the ultimate risk bearer. He takes important managerial decisions involving:

Uses of Fish and Fish Products/Other Aquatic Organisms

<h1><strong>USES OF FISH AND FISH PRODUCTS/OTHER AQUATIC ORGANISMS</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Examples of Fish</li> <li>Fish Products</li> <li>Other Aquatic Food Organisms</li> <li>Uses of Fish, Fish Products and Other Aquatic Food Organisms</li> </ol> <br> <h2><strong>Examples of Fish</strong></h2> <ol> <li>Tilapia</li> <li>Cat fish</li> <li>Carp</li> <li>Shark</li> <li>Mud fish</li> <li>Croaker</li> <li>Mackerel</li> <li>Dog fish, Nile perch, etc.</li> </ol>

Agriculture in Stock Exchange

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<h1><strong>AGRICULTURE IN STOCK EXCHANGE </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Introduction to Stock Exchange</li> <li>Meaning of Stock Exchange</li> <li>Buying and Selling of Goods and Services Available Now and in the Future</li> <li>Terms Used in Stock Exchange</li> <li>People Involved in Stock Exchange</li> </ol> <h2><strong>Introduction to Stock Exchange </strong></h2> The activities of stock exchange are about selling part or all of an enterprise or corporation to numerous part-owners so as to generate money to finance that enterprise. The money which is called Capital is generated by a corporation or organization through the sales and distribution of parts or all to several part-owners is called <strong><em>Stock.</em></strong> One unit of stock is called <strong><em>shares</em>,</strong> while the combination of those who bought shares i.e. those who contributed money towards the setting up of the business is called <strong><em>Shareholders.</em></strong> The shareholders are given share certificate as a clear evidence of the amount of money contributed and that makes them a part-owners. <em><strong>Share Certificate </strong></em>is the document which clearly shows the number of shares each holder contributed to the business and other relevant information. <h2><strong>Meaning of Stock Exchange

Soil Formation and Profile Development

<h1><strong>SOIL FORMATION AND PROFILE DEVELOPMENT</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Introduction</li> <li>Factors of Soil Formation</li> <li>Processes of Soil Formation</li> <li>Soil Profile Development</li> <li>Importance of Soil Profile<u></u></li> </ol> <strong> </strong> <h2><strong>Introduction</strong></h2> The soil is a very important factor for agricultural activity and the survival of man. Soil is the loose weathered material covering the surface of the earth, which supports life. It can also be defined as the outermost part of the earth that is formed from the mixture of minerals and decaying organic matter which extends from the surface down to the limit of biological forces.   <h2><strong>Factors of Soil Formation</strong></h2> The transformation of rocks into soil is referred to as soil formation. The first stage in the process of soil formation is the <strong>Weathering of rocks</strong> which involves the breaking of rocks into smaller particles and eventually into individual minerals that the rock is composed of. Weathering of rock can either be<strong> physica</strong>l such as through water, wind, Pressure, ice and temperature, or <strong>chemical </strong>which involves changes in the chemical composition of the rock.There are a number of factors that influence the rate, type and quality of soil formed in a location. There are five factors that determine or influence soil formation, namely: 1. Parent material <ul> <li>Climate</li> <li>Topography</li> <li>Living organisms</li> <li>Time</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Parent Material</strong></h3> The type of materials, that is structure, texture, and mineral composition present in the parent rock will also determine the type of soil formed. Parent materials are important in the following ways:


<h1>IRRIGATION SYSTEM</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Irrigation System</li> <li>Importance of Irrigation System</li> <li>Problems of Irrigation System</li> <li>Types of Irrigation System</li> </ol>   <h2>Meaning of Irrigation System</h2> Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil for the purpose of supplying moisture for plant growth. This is because water is the most important determining factor in crop production   <h2>Importance of Irrigation System</h2> Irrigation is important in agriculture for the following reasons: <ol> <li>Provision of moisture necessary for plant growth.</li> <li>It increases yield of crops.</li> <li>It improves microbial decomposition of organic matter to release crop nutrients.</li> <li>It cools the soil temperature in the hot and dry season.</li> <li>It reduces harmful accumulated salt in the soil.</li> <li>It makes for all year round cultivation and crop production.</li> <li>It facilitates seed germination and enable the crops to be well established when rainfall is not steady.</li> <li>It reduces the hazard of soil caking.</li> <li>It stabilizes the farmer’s economy since production is not seasonal or erratic.</li> </ol>   <h2>Problems of Irrigation System</h2> The following are the problems of irrigation system:

Types and Classification of Farm Animals

<h1>TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Definition of Farm Animals</li> <li>Types of Farm Animals</li> <li>Classification of Farm Animals</li> </ol>   <h2>Definition of Farm Animals</h2> Farm animals are essentially those animals that have been domesticated for production purposes and for other benefits of man. Farm animals vary in their individual characteristics. These include avian species, mammalian species and aquatic species. <img class="size-full wp-image-53393 aligncenter" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/farm-animals.jpg" alt="Types and Classification of Farm Animals" width="462" height="388" />   <h2>Types of Farm Animals</h2> <h3>(i) Avian Species</h3> This group belongs to all domesticated birds such as domestic fowl, ducks, turkeys, geese, guinea fowl, swarms, pigeons, pheasants, canaries and ostriches. These lay eggs and are therefore refer to as Oviparous animals. <h3>(ii) Mammalian Species</h3> This group consists of the domestic four-footed animals which include cattle, sheep, goat, pigs, horses, donkeys and camels. They give birth to their young ones alive and as such, they are referred to as Viviparous animals. <h3>(iii) Aquatic Species</h3> This group consists of animals living and reproducing in both fresh and salt water bodies eg fishes, crabs, snails, crustaceans etc. EVALUATION <ol> <li>Define the term farm animals.</li> <li>State the three major types of farm animals and give two examples.</li> </ol>   <h2>Classification of Farm Animals</h2> Farm animals are generally classified on the basis of their habitat, uses, digestion, reproduction, etc. <h3>A. Habitat</h3> Classification under habitat comes under three major divisions, namely;

Agricultural Insurance

<h1>AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Definition of Agricultural Insurance</li> <li>Importance of Agricultural Insurance</li> <li>Types of Agricultural Insurance Policies</li> <li>Various Agricultural Risks</li> <li>Insurance Terms</li> <li>Problems of Agricultural Insurance</li> </ol>   <h2>Definition of Agricultural Insurance</h2> Generally, insurance is a form of risk management used to absorb the shock of unexpected loss. Agricultural producers have series of risks affecting the income and welfare of their households. These are mainly production risks in relation to weather conditions, pests and diseases and market conditions. Agricultural insurance can be defined as the agreement where one party (insurer) promises to pay another party (insured) of a sum of money in the event of suffering a specified agricultural loss or damage.   <h2>Importance of Agricultural Insurance</h2> The following are the importance of agricultural insurance: <ol> <li>It help to give the farmers or investors peace of mind because the insurance policy will meet the financial consequences of certain risks.</li> <li>It inculcate savings habit in farmers as to prepare them for future.</li> <li>Insurance certificate can be used as collateral security to secure loans from commercial banks by farmers.</li> <li>It help to contribute to the invisible earnings of the country i.e. foreign exchange.</li> <li>Life insurance can be used as a means of preparing for old age of a farmer.</li> <li>Insurance makes fund available for investment in agriculture.</li> <li>Losses are controlled by agricultural insurance by reducing the frequency and severity of losses.</li> <li>Social benefits such as employment opportunities,job security and continued contributions to nation building are encouraged by agricultural insurance policy because business is kept alive as long as the financial consequences of certain losses are met by the insurance.</li> </ol>   <h2>Types of Agricultural Insurance Policies</h2> The types of insurance policies include the following:

Classification of Farm Animals based on Size and Habitat

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<h1><strong>CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS BASED ON SIZE AND HABITAT </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Classification of Farm Animals based on Size and Habitat</li> <li>Classification of Farm Animals based on Habitat</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Classification of Farm Animals</strong></h2> Farm animals are classified based on the following criteria: <ol> <li>The size of the animal</li> <li>The habitat</li> <li>The stomach types/digestion</li> <li>The modes of reproduction</li> <li>The feeding pattern</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Classification based on the Size of Animal</strong></h2> This refers to the body size. It is further divided into two <ol> <li>Large farm animals</li> <li>Small farm animals</li> </ol> <h3><strong>Large Farm Animals</strong></h3> These are animals with large body sizes. Examples are cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, camels, horses, donkeys, etc. <img class="size-full wp-image-32367 aligncenter" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/work-animals-bull.jpg" alt="Farm Animals - Work animals - bull" width="304" height="208" />

Farm Structures and Buildings

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<h1><strong>FARM STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS<strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Farm Structures</li> <li>Examples of Farm Structures</li> <li>Types of Farm Structures and their Uses</li> <li>Description of Farm Structures</li> <li>Meaning of Farm Buildings</li> <li>Types of Farm Buildings</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Farm Structures </strong></h2> Farm structures are facilities constructed on the farmland to ease farm operations e.g. silos, nursery, feed mill, etc. Farm structures are very simple buildings designed to serve specific purposes on the farm so that farm operations are more easily carried out e.g. barns, cribs, silos, etc.   <h2><strong>Examples of Farm Structures</strong></h2>

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