Packaging and Packaging Criteria

<h1><strong>PACKAGING AND PACKAGING CRITERIA</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Packaging</li> <li>Purpose of Packaging</li> <li>Advantages and Disadvantages of Packaging</li> <li>Packaging Criteria</li> <li>Examples of Packaging Items</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Packaging </strong></h2> Packaging is a system whereby goods are packed, wrapped or put inside containers, weighed and priced before they are arranged on the shelves in a store. This is the practice of putting agricultural produce in small containers. Packaging is one of marketing activities especially channels of distribution. Packing prevents wastage, pests’ infestation and contamination. <h2><strong>Purpose of Packaging </strong></h2> The role of packaging in the marketing of agricultural produce has become quite significant as it is one of the ways companies make consumers notice their products. Common uses of packaging include:

Post-planting Operations

<h1><strong>POST-PLANTING OPERATIONS</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Post-planting Operations</li> <li>Post-planting Operations</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Post-planting Operations</strong></h2> These are the operations carried out after planting. They include thinning, supplying, mulching, manure/fertilizer application, weeding, control of pests and diseases, harvesting, processing, storing and marketing. <h2><strong>Post-planting Operations</strong></h2> Post-planting operations include the following: <ol> <li>Thinning</li> <li>Supplying</li> <li>Mulching</li> <li>Capping</li> <li>Fertilizer and manure application</li> <li>Weeding</li> <li>Staking</li> <li>Pruning and trimming</li> <li>Control of pests and diseases</li> </ol> <h3>1.<strong> Thinning</strong></h3> This is the removal of extra seedlings from a stand to give room for others to grow. The weakest plants should be carefully pulled up without damaging the remaining ones.

Classification of Animals based on Stomach Types and Feeding Pattern

<h1><strong>CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS BASED ON STOMACH TYPES AND FEEDING PATTERN</strong></h1> CONTENTClassification of Farm Animals based on; <ol> <li>Stomach Types: Ruminant and Non-ruminant Animals</li> <li>Feeding Pattern: Herbivores, Carnivores and Omnivores</li> </ol> <br> <h2><strong>Classifications of Farm Animals Based on Types of Stomach</strong></h2> Farm animals can be classified into <strong>two groups,</strong> according to the type of stomachs or digestive system that they possess.The first group is <strong>ruminants</strong> while the other group is <strong>non-ruminants</strong>. <h3><strong>Ruminants (Polygastrics)</strong></h3> These are animals that have complex stomachs and chew the cud e.g. cattle, sheep, goat, etc.They carry out regurgitation i.e. they act of bringing back already swallowed into the mouth for proper chewing.They chew the cud (rumination) which means they bring back their food into their mouth from the rumen through anti-peristaltic movement for proper chewing. This happened when the animal is resting.The complex stomach of a ruminant is made up of <strong>four cavities/</strong>chambers/compartments, namely;

Factors of Production: Entrepreneur or Management

<h1><strong>FACTORS OF PRODUCTION - ENTREPRENEUR OR MANAGEMENT</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Entrepreneur or Management</li> <li>Characteristics of Management</li> <li>Importance of Entrepreneur or Management in Agricultural Production</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Entrepreneur or Management</strong></h2> An entrepreneur or management refers to the person or group of persons who organize, co-ordinate and control the use of other factors of production. This is the person responsible for directing the affairs of the farm’s administration.He is the farm manager and the ultimate risk bearer. He takes important managerial decisions involving:

Role of Non-governmental Organisations in Agricultural Development

<h1><strong>THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS (NGOs) IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)</li> <li>Characteristics of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)</li> <li>Examples of NGOs Involved in Improving Agricultural Production</li> <li>The Roles/Importance of NGOs in Agricultural Development</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)</strong></h2> Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are bodies set up by private agencies or corporate bodies to develop agriculture all over the globe. These are organisations formed by individuals or group of individuals who run the organization’s affairs without government intervention. They support government projects with their wealth and resources. People found in this kind of organizations have in their heart the true love of the nation and the upliftment of the less privileged citizens in order to make the environment healthy and safe to live in. They are independent of government.  <h2><strong>Characteristics of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) </strong></h2> The following are some characteristic features of NGOs:

Sources of Farm Power

<h1>SOURCES OF FARM POWER</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Farm Power</li> <li>Sources of Farm Power</li> </ol>   <h2>Meaning of Farm Power</h2> Power is defined as the energy or force that can be used to do work. It is measured in watts (w) and kilowatts (kw). It is expressed as work done over time taken.\(P = \frac{force × distance}{time}\)Farm power can therefore be described as any source of energy used in carrying out farm operations or the various sources of energy used in doing farm work.In all these operations, human power is by far the earliest source of power available on the farm and this is considered to be the very important in all activities carried out on the farm.  <h2>Sources of Farm Power</h2> The common sources of Farm Power are: Human, Animal, Mechanical, Solar, Wind, Electrical, Water, Fuel and Bio gas. <h3>1. Human Power</h3> This refers to human being as a source of energy for doing farm work. This source of power involves many people than all other sources of power. The energy dissipated during work is rated to be about 75 watts. Human labour used as power in the farm may be skilled or unskilled. It can also be hired or supplied by the family members. Human power is commonly used with traditional tools and it is mobile, hence it should be handled with care. <h4>Advantages of Human Power</h4> <ol> <li>It is a cheap source of power compared to machines</li> <li>Man uses his intelligence to control all other sources of farm power.</li> <li>It can be controlled.</li> <li>It brings about least damage to the crops, animals and their products.</li> <li>Human power is easily available</li> </ol> <h4>Disadvantages of Human Power</h4> <ol> <li>Output is very low as it can only work for few hours.</li> <li>Man can easily get fatigued</li> <li>Human beings can get sick and eventually die.</li> <li>Human beings cannot do heavy jobs such as clearing, ridging, weeding for a long time.</li> <li>If trained or specialized, it may be expensive.</li> </ol>   <h3>2. Animal Power</h3>

Agro-forestry Practices in Nigeria

<h1>AGRO-FORESTRY PRACTICES IN NIGERIA</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Agro-forest Practices</li> <li>Agro-Forest Practices</li> <li>Taungya System</li> <li>Alley Cropping</li> <li>Forest Reserves</li> <li>Wildlife Conservation</li> </ol>   <h2>Meaning of Agro-forest Practices</h2> Agro-forest is the practice of combining agriculture with forestry for the sustenance of trees, fertility of the soil and production of abundant food crops to meet the needs of man. This account for about 70 percent of agricultural production for farmers living in forest zones.  <h2>Agro-Forest Practices</h2> <h3>Taungya System</h3> Taungya is a system of combining crop husbandry with forest management on the same piece of land, thereby integrating agriculture with forestry. Food crops are cultivated along with economic trees to provide shade at the initial stage of growth of the economic trees. The food crops are usually annual or biennial crops.Seedlings or seeds of economic trees are given to local farmers who have interest on taungya system to plant along with their own crops. After about two years they vacate the land while the forestry department takes over the management of the trees.  <h4>Examples of Trees Used in Agro-forestry</h4> <ul> <li>Parkia biblobasa (Ukpaka - locust beans)</li> <li>Irvingia spp (Ogbono)</li> <li>Adansonia digitata (Baobab)</li> <li>Tectona grandis (Teak)</li> <li>Vitelleria paradosa (Shear butter)</li> <li>Chrysophyllum albidum (African star apple)</li> <li>Blighia sapida (Ishin)</li> <li>Gmelina spp</li> <li>Flame of the forest</li> <li>Pinus spp</li> <li>Iroko</li>

Rangeland Management

<h1>RANGELAND MANAGEMENT</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Rangeland/Pasture</li> <li>Importance of Rangeland/Pasture</li> <li>Characteristics of Rangeland</li> <li>Common Grasses of Livestock in Rangeland</li> <li>Factors Affecting the Level of Production of Herbage</li> <li>Methods of Rangeland and Pasture Improvement</li> </ol> <h2>Meaning of Rangeland/Pasture</h2> The term <em>rangeland</em> is used to describe a predominantly herbaceous plants community. It affords extensive grazing pasture for animals like cattle, sheep and goats. <h2>Definition of Rangeland</h2> Rangeland can be defined as an extensive area of land covered by grasses, legumes with some tree, shrubs and herbs where animals (ruminants) can graze or browse freely.Rangeland is any extensive area of land that is occupied by native herbaceous or shrub vegetation which is grazed by animals.It is an expanse of land suitable for livestock to wander and graze on. <h2>Meaning of Natural Pasture</h2> This is also referred to as natural grass land or rangeland. <h2>Meaning of Artificial Pasture</h2> This is also referred to as established or sown pasture. In this pasture, grasses and legumes are deliberately planted and managed by man to be fed on by livestock. <h2>Meaning of Improved Pasture</h2> Natural pasture or range land can be improved by addition of some farming activities such as irrigation, reseeding, fertilizer application, weeding etc. so as to make it better and functional for livestock that feed on them.  <h2>Importance of Rangeland</h2> Rangeland is important for the following reasons:

Apiculture or Bee-keeping

<h1>APICULTURE OR BEEKEEPING</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Apiculture</li> <li>Importance of Apiculture</li> <li>Types of Bees</li> <li>Methods of Keeping Bees</li> <li>Bee Keeping Equipment</li> <li>Factors to Consider in Choosing a Site for Apiary</li> <li>Bee Products and their Uses</li> <li>Precautionary Measures in Keeping Bees</li> </ol>   <h2>Meaning of Apiculture</h2> <em>Apiculture</em> comes from two Latin words, <em>apis</em> meaning bees and <em>cultura</em> meaning cultivation. From these apiculture is the cultivation of bees. This definition however lacks substance as bees are animals not plants that cannot be cultivated but rear. Hence, apiculture can be better define as the art of rearing, breeding and managing honey bee colony in artificial hives for economic gains through the production of honey and other bee products for man’s use. For bees to produce honey, they feed majorly on nectar and pollen   <h2>Importance of Apiculture</h2> Apiculture is important for the following reasons: <ol> <li>Provision of honey: we obtain honey which serves as sweetening properties</li> <li>Source of income to the bee keepers</li> <li>Medicinal use: It is used in curing various ailments</li> <li>Source of raw materials: bye products of honey such as bee wax is used in manufacturing of candles, polish and adhesives</li> <li>Pollination: honey bees are pollinators and this is their greatest value in agriculture</li> <li>They provide employment opportunities to the bee keepers</li> <li>Bee keeping does not compete with any other agricultural crops and livestock hence; it can be practice alongside other forms of agriculture</li> <li>It requires little land space and capital</li> <li>It is a good field of study in agriculture</li> <li>The honey produced is sold in different market outlet</li> </ol>   <h2>Types of Bees</h2> There are many different species of bees most of which are solitary (<em>Apiscerana</em>) while others are social. Social bees live together in colonies and the best known is the honey bees (<em>Apismellifera</em>).The major types are indigenous and exotic bees.<img class="size-full wp-image-56527 aligncenter" src="" alt="Apiculture or Bee Keeping - Types of Bees" width="574" height="342" />

Fish Processing and Preservation Methods

<h1><strong>PRESERVATION OF FISH</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Fish Preservation</li> <li>Methods of Fish Preservation</li> </ol> <h2><strong>Meaning of Fish Preservation</strong></h2> Fish preservation is the way of taking good care of fish after it has been captured in order to prevent it from going bad. Methods of preserving fish include the following: <h2><strong>Methods of Fish Preservation</strong></h2> <ol> <li>Sun drying: Removes water by evaporation and its cheap.</li>

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