Introduction to Biology

Complexity: Standard

<h1>INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of (a) Science and (b) Biology</li> <li>The Scientific Method</li> <li>Experimental Pattern</li> <li>Living And Non-living Things</li> <li>Differences between Plants and Animals</li> <li>Levels of Organization</li> <li>Complexity in Multicellular Organisms</li> </ol>   <h2>Meaning of Science and Biology</h2> Science can be defined as a <strong>systematic process of making inquiry</strong> about the living and non-living things in our environment. Science is both an organized body of knowledge and a process of finding out knowledge. Biology is the branch of science that studies living things. The word <strong>‘biology’</strong> is derived from two Greek words: <strong>‘bios’</strong> which <strong>means life</strong>, and <strong>‘logos</strong>’ which <strong>means study</strong>. Biology therefore means <strong>the study of life or of living things.</strong> Biology has several branches, these include <ol> <li><strong>Botany</strong> (study of plants)</li> <li><strong>Zoology</strong> (study of animals)</li> <li><strong>Morphology</strong> (study of the external features of living things)</li> <li><strong>Anatomy</strong> (study of internal structure of living things)</li> <li><strong>Physiology</strong> (Study of how living things function)</li> <li><strong>Ecology</strong> (study of the relationships between living things and their environment),</li> <li><strong>Genetics</strong> (Study of how living things inherit characters from their parents) etc.</li> </ol> The prime purpose of science is research, i.e. finding out about things, so biology involves finding out or making inquiry about living things, their interaction with themselves and with nature. EVALUATION <ol> <li>Define the terms (a) Science (b) Biology</li> <li>State five branches of biology.</li> <li>Of what use is (a) science (b) biology to man?</li> </ol>   <h2>Methods of Science (The Scientific Method)</h2> The method of science involves systematically making inquiries about something under study. It <strong>begins with observation</strong> (that is, looking at something carefully with a view to finding an answer to a question). This involves using all the senses i.e. sight, hearing, touch, feeling, pressure, taste, etc. and instruments (e.g. ruler, microscope, magnifying lens, weighing balance, telescopes, barometer, etc.) where necessary. Observation is <strong>followed by a hypothesis</strong> i.e. a sensible, reasonable guess which is capable of being tested or verified.

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