Meaning, Types and Functions of Office

Complexity: Standard

<h1>THE OFFICE</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>The Meaning and Types of Office</li> <li>Functions of an office</li> <li>The Different Office Departments in an Organization</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Office</strong></h2> An office is defined as a room set aside in an organization for all clerical activities. An office can also be defined as a place where the planning and organization in connection with the production and distribution of goods and services are done. Examples of offices are the principal’s office, Banks, Restaurant, Shops etc. In the Principal’s office, records of both students and staff are kept.<strong> </strong> <h2><strong>Types of Office</strong></h2> There are two types of office namely, a small office and a large office. <h3><strong>A Small Office </strong></h3> A small office is usually found in a small organization because the volume of clerical activities is small. A small office usually has one to ten clerical workers. Example of small office are a trader’s shop, the Principal office Patent Medicine shop etc. <h4><strong>Advantages of a Small Office </strong></h4> A small office has the following advantages: <ol> <li>The workers perform a wide variety of duties thereby reducing monotony of work and idle time.</li> <li>It assists workers to learn more of office skills.</li> <li>Workers are able to learn more about the activities within the whole business.</li> <li>The workers enjoy a close relationship with their employers, customers and suppliers.</li> </ol> <h4><strong>Disadvantages of a Small Office</strong></h4> The following are the disadvantages of a small office:

Meaning, Forms and Effects of Production

Length: 40 minutesComplexity: Standard

<h1><strong>MEANING AND FORMS OF PRODUCTION </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Production</li> <li>Forms of Production/Types of Production</li> <li>Positive Effects of Production on the Environment/Society</li> <li>Negative Effects of Production on the Environment/Society</li> </ol> <h2></h2> <h2><strong>Meaning of Production</strong></h2> Production may be defined as any human activity that involves the making of physical goods and provision of services for the satisfaction of human wants. It is also seen as creation of utilities, utility means the ability of goods and services to satisfy human wants. In a nutshell, Production is any activity which gives services or changes the form, place or time of anything that is used to satisfy human needs. <h2><strong>Forms of Production/Types of Production </strong></h2> There are three forms of production namely: primary production (extractive industry), secondary production (manufacturing and constructive industry) Tertiary production (commercial and direct services). <h3><strong>Primary Production (Extractive Industry)</strong></h3> This type of production involves digging of raw materials or tapping and harnessing of natural resources from the land, sea and atmosphere. It includes farming, fishing, hunting, mining, quarrying, oil drilling etc. This form of production is referred to as primary production.

Introduction to Commerce

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>INTRODUCTION TO COMMERCE</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning and Importance of Commerce</li> <li>Activities which Aid Commerce</li> </ol> <h2></h2> <h2><strong>Definition of Commerce</strong></h2> Commerce is the study of trade and aids to trade. It is concerned with the exchange of goods and services and the agencies that facilitate the exchanges. <h2><strong>Branches of Commerce</strong></h2> There are two <a href="https://classhall.com/lesson/divisions-of-commerce/">branches of commerce</a>: Trade and Aids to Trade.Trade refers to the act of buying and selling of goods and services. Aids to trade refer to the other activities that help facilitate trade.<img class="aligncenter wp-image-15732 size-full" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/scope-of-commerce.jpg" alt="Introduction to commerce - Branches of commerce" width="587" height="277" /> <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>The Branches of Commerce</strong></p>

Forms of Business Organisation: Limited Liability Company

<h1><strong>LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Limited Liability Company</li> <li>Public Limited Liability Company</li> <li>Advantages and Disadvantages of Public Limited Liability Company</li> <li>Meaning of Private Limited Liability Company</li> <li>Advantages and Disadvantages of Private Limited Liability Company</li> <li>Comparison between Public and Private Companies</li> </ol> <br> <h2><strong>Meaning of Limited Liability Company</strong></h2> A Limited Liability Company is a company in which the responsibility or liability of members for debts of the company is limited to the capital they have contributed or agreed to contribute. The private properties of members are excluded, and all that members lose if the company fails is the money they have contributed. It is formed and registered under the law known as the Company Act. When a company is formed and registered with the Registrar of Companies, it is said to be incorporated.There are two types of Limited Liability Company namely, Private and Public Companies. <h2><strong>Public Limited Liability Company</strong></h2> A Public Limited Liability Company is a business unit that carries on business to make profit for its owners. Examples are Nigerian bottling company Ltd., Total Nigeria Limited, First Bank of Plc. It is owned by Shareholders and managed and control by Board of management. <h3><strong>Advantages of Public Limited Liability Company</strong></h3> <ol> <li>It can raise money from the public through issuing of shares and debentures. This enhances the company expansion.</li> <li>It is a legal entity because it can sue and can be sued.</li> <li>The company’s properties are different from that of its owners.</li> <li>It enjoys continuity because it has perpetual life. The company can only be wounded voluntarily or on the order of a law court.</li> <li>Share holders cannot lose more than the value of their shares. This is because the company enjoys limited liability.</li> </ol>

Meaning, Functions and Qualities of a Clerical Staff

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>CLERICAL STAFF</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Clerical Staff</li> <li>Qualities of a Clerical Staff</li> <li>Duties of a Clerical Staff</li> <li>Confidentiality of Office Information</li> </ol> <br> <h2><strong>Meaning of Clerical Staff </strong></h2> A clerical staff is someone who is employed either in a private business organization or government establishment to perform clerical duties with a corresponding payment of wages called salary. A clerical staff is also referred to as a clerk. A clerk can also be defined as someone who does routine duties in an office. Such duties include: record keeping, staffing service, filing of documents, etc. Examples are typists, account clerks, messengers, etc.<strong> </strong> <h2><strong>Qualities of a Clerical Staff </strong></h2> Qualities of a Clerical Staff are divided into two: Personal Qualities and Job Qualities <h3><strong>Personal Qualities of a Clerical Staff</strong></h3> The personal qualities of a clerical staff include the following:

Alphanumeric Keys (Keyboarding Applications)

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>ALPHANUMERIC KEYS (KEYBOARDING APPLICATIONS)</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Alphanumeric keys</li> <li>Identification of Alphanumeric Keys</li> <li>Correct Finger Placement on Alphanumeric Keys</li> <li>Soft Touch Manipulation of Alphanumeric Keys</li> </ol> <strong> </strong> <h2><strong>Alphanumeric Keys</strong></h2> These are keys of all the alphabets (a – z) and numbers (0 - 9).The alphanumeric keys also include symbols at the upper part of the number row such as exclamation mark (!), at (@), ampersand (&) etc. <h2><strong>Identification of Alphanumeric Keys </strong></h2> Here, learners are to properly identify all the alphanumeric keys. The keys are to be shown to the learners by the teacher. <h2><strong>Correct Finger Placement on Alphanumeric Keys</strong></h2> For fingers to use on alphabets, refer to the previous lesson i.e week 6 on keyboard rows particularly the areas highlighted in yellow colour above. For the numeric keys, the 1st finger on the left hand side will press key ‘‘4’’, the 2nd finger will press key ‘‘3’’, the 3rd finger will press key ‘‘2’’, while the 4th finger which is the little finger will press key ‘‘1’’.

Entrepreneurship

Complexity: Standard

<h2><strong>ENTREPRENEURSHIP</strong></h2> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Entrepreneurship</li> <li>Meaning of Enterprise</li> <li>Meaning of Self Employment</li> <li>Facilities Available for Self Employment</li> <li>Successful Entrepreneurs</li> <li>Local, National and International Entrepreneurs</li> <li>Importance or Functions of Entrepreneurship</li> </ol> <br> <h2><strong>Meaning of Entrepreneurship</strong></h2> Entrepreneurship is gotten from the French verb ‘entrepreneur’, which means ‘to undertake’. Entrepreneurship is the process of starting a business or other organization for the purpose of making profit. The entrepreneur develops a business model, acquires the human and other required resources, and is fully responsible for its success or failure. It is defined as an individual who organizes or operates a business or businesses. <h2><strong>Meaning of Enterprise</strong></h2> Enterprise refers to economic and business, nonprofit and government agencies responsible for production and distribution of goods and services. It can also be defined as effort made by people to achieve something. For example people have the initiative to start project to face challenges and to take risk in order to achieve their goals.

Journals; Ledgers; Classification of Accounts

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>DOUBLE ENTRY BOOK-KEEPING</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Journals</li> <li>Meaning of Ledgers</li> <li>Classes of Ledger</li> <li>Classification of Accounts</li> </ol> <br> <h2><strong>Meaning of Journals</strong></h2> <strong>Journals are documents which contain the daily records of business transactions.</strong> Information from source documents are first recorded in journals before being transferred to the principal books of account. Journals are called day books because they need to be updated daily. Each record in a journal is called an entry. Journals are also called <strong>books of original entry</strong> or <strong>books of prime entry</strong> because the entries are transferred to a second book i.e. principal book of account. <h2><strong>Meaning of Ledgers</strong></h2> <strong>Ledgers are principal books of account used to record the weekly and monthly transactions from the journal entries</strong>. It is therefore called a book of second or secondary entry because transactions are transferred from the journal entries to it. <h2><strong>Classes of Ledger</strong></h2> The following are the classes of ledger we have:

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