Meaning, Types and Characteristics of Farm Animals

<h1><strong>MEANING, TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF FARM ANIMALS </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Farm Animals</li> <li>Types of Farm Animals</li> <li>Characteristics of Farm Animals</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Farm Animals</strong></h2> Farm animals are animals that are reared by man for different purposes such as food supply, income generation, clothing materials, etc. Examples include goats, sheep, rabbits, poultry, cattle, pigs, fish, snails, etc. <h2><strong>Types of Farm Animals</strong></h2> The following are the forms of farm animals: <ol> <li>Work animals</li> <li>Dairy animals</li> <li>Guard animals</li> <li>Poultry</li> <li>Pets</li> <li>Aquatic animals</li> </ol> <h3>1. <strong>Work Animals</strong>:</h3> These are animals that are used for work on the farm. They are used for carrying loads, ploughing, harrowing and ridging e.g cattle, [Sokoto Gudali, White Fulani], (in forms of bull and bullock). Such animals are called <strong>draught animals.</strong> The normal output of a working bull is about 500W compared to that of a man which about 75W. Work animals are also used for transportation and carrying of load e.g. horses, camels and donkeys. Such animals are referred to as <strong>beasts of burden.</strong> They have the ability to survive or travel long distance without water. <h4><strong>Characteristics of Work Animals</strong></h4> The following are the characteristics of work animals: <ol> <li>They are well built with good body conformation.</li> <li>They can survive or travel long distance without water.</li> <li>They are rugged and have very great strength.</li> <li>They have strong hind limbs.</li> <li>They are docile and tolerant.</li> </ol> <img class="size-full wp-image-32367 aligncenter" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/work-animals-bull.jpg" alt="Farm Animals - Work animals - bull" width="304" height="208" />

Characteristic Features of Some Farm Animals and their Distribution in Nigeria

<h1><strong>Characteristic Features of Some Farm Animals and their Distribution in Nigeria</strong></h1> CONTENT Characteristics and Distribution of; <ol> <li>Cattle</li> <li>Cheep</li> <li>Goats</li> <li>Pigs</li> <li>Rabbits</li> <li>Poultry</li> <li>Horses</li> </ol> <img class="size-full wp-image-32371 aligncenter" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Characteristics-and-distribution-of-farm-animals-in-Nigeria.jpg" alt="Characteristics and distribution of farm animals in Nigeria" width="466" height="157" />   <h2><strong>Basic Characteristic Features of Farm Animals</strong></h2> Farm animals have certain basic features that make them belong to a particular group. These characteristics help to differentiate them from other forms of animals and also enable some of the animals to adapt to their natural habitat. Examples of farm animals include: <strong>Cattle, Sheep, Goat, Pig, Poultry, Rabbit, Fish, Snails, Guinea pig, Donkeys and Horses.</strong> <strong>Distribution</strong> refers to where they can be found, or where they are commonly reared. The types of farm animals found in Nigeria, whether local or exotic (imported) are as follows:

Factors Affecting the Distribution of Livestock in Nigeria

<h1><strong>FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION OF LIVESTOCK IN NIGERIA</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Factors Affecting the Distribution of Livestock in Nigeria</li> <li>Table Showing Terms Associated With Some Farm Animals</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Factors Affecting the Distribution of Livestock in Nigeria</strong></h2> The population of certain kinds of farm animal is more in certain areas than in others. There are factors responsible. Up to 80% of grazing livestock is to be found in the savanna zone of northern Nigeria. This is because of the following factors: 1. <strong>Food/Availability of good pasture</strong>: This constitutes the bulk of the feed of livestock. Large expanse of grassland is abundant in northern Nigeria, and for this reason there is greater population of cattle, sheep and goats, which graze on the pasture grasses and legumes found in this area than in southern Nigeria. 2.<strong> Climate: </strong>Animal production is usually affected adversely by too hot or too cold weather conditions. For instance, pigs do not have sweat glands, so they do not perspire; rearing them in a hot climate will greatly reduce their efficiency. Moreover, the growth and multiplication of pests and diseases is also encouraged by high temperature and rainfall, and this hinders the growth and performance of livestock.

Classification of Farm Animals based on Size and Habitat

<h1><strong>CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS BASED ON SIZE AND HABITAT </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Classification of Farm Animals based on Size and Habitat</li> <li>Classification of Farm Animals based on Habitat</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Classification of Farm Animals</strong></h2> Farm animals are classified based on the following criteria: <ol> <li>The size of the animal</li> <li>The habitat</li> <li>The stomach types/digestion</li> <li>The modes of reproduction</li> <li>The feeding pattern</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Classification based on the Size of Animal</strong></h2> This refers to the body size. It is further divided into two <ol> <li>Large farm animals</li> <li>Small farm animals</li> </ol> <h3><strong>Large Farm Animals</strong></h3> These are animals with large body sizes. Examples are cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, camels, horses, donkeys, etc. <img class="size-full wp-image-32367 aligncenter" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/work-animals-bull.jpg" alt="Farm Animals - Work animals - bull" width="304" height="208" />

Classification of Animals based on Mode of Reproduction

<h1><strong>CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS BASED ON MODE OF REPRODUCTION</strong></h1> CONTENT Classification of Farm Animals based on Mode of Reproduction <ol> <li>Mammals</li> <li>Non-mammals</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Classification of Farm Animals based on Mode of Reproduction</strong></h2> Using this criteria, farm animals can be classified into two groups, which are: <ul> <li>Mammals (viviparous farm animals)</li> <li>Non-mammals (oviparous farm animals)</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Mammals </strong></h3> Mammals are animals that give birth to their young ones alive and have their bodies covered with hair or fur.

Classification of Animals based on Stomach Types and Feeding Pattern

<h1><strong>CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS BASED ON STOMACH TYPES AND FEEDING PATTERN</strong></h1> CONTENT Classification of Farm Animals based on; <ol> <li>Stomach Types: Ruminant and Non-ruminant Animals</li> <li>Feeding Pattern: Herbivores, Carnivores and Omnivores</li> </ol> <br> <h2><strong>Classifications of Farm Animals Based on Types of Stomach</strong></h2> Farm animals can be classified into <strong>two groups,</strong> according to the type of stomachs or digestive system that they possess. The first group is <strong>ruminants</strong> while the other group is <strong>non-ruminants</strong>. <h3><strong>Ruminants (Polygastrics)</strong></h3> These are animals that have complex stomachs and chew the cud e.g. cattle, sheep, goat, etc. They carry out regurgitation i.e. they act of bringing back already swallowed into the mouth for proper chewing. They chew the cud (rumination) which means they bring back their food into their mouth from the rumen through anti-peristaltic movement for proper chewing. This happened when the animal is resting. The complex stomach of a ruminant is made up of <strong>four cavities/</strong>chambers/compartments, namely;

Uses of Farm Animals

<h1><strong>USES OF FARM ANIMALS </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Uses of Farm Animals</li> <li>Products and By-products of Farm Animals</li> <li>Summary of the Uses of Farm Animals</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Uses of Farm Animals</strong></h2> Farm animals are reared for the following purposes. They are reared for food, work, clothing, security/protection, sport and recreation, fertilizer, medicine, raw materials and livestock feeds. Let us explain each of the usage briefly. <strong>Food</strong>: Many food products are derived from farm animals. We get products like meat, milk, eggs from farm animals. Also animals’ by-products like feathers, bones, blood, droppings/dung, fat/oil are derived from farm animals. Food products and by-products from farm animals are very useful to man and industries. <strong>Work</strong>: Bigger farm animals can be used to work in the farm. Bullocks can be used to draw working machinery like ploughs, harrows, and ridgers while cultivating the soil. Donkey, camels are used to carry farm loads, while horse is used for transportation.

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