Definition and Importance of Agriculture

<h1><strong>DEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Definition of Agriculture</li> <li>Importance of Agriculture to the Individual</li> <li>Importance of Agriculture to the Society</li> <li>Importance of Agriculture to the Nation</li> <li>Types of Agriculture based on Levels of Production: Subsistence & Commercial Agriculture</li> </ol> <br> <h2><strong>Definition of Agriculture</strong></h2> Agriculture can be defined as the art and science which deals with the growing of crops and rearing of animals for man’s use. <h2><strong>Importance of Agriculture </strong></h2> Agriculture plays an important role in the development of all nations. It used to be the mainstay of Nigeria’s economy and that of other developing countries. The importance of agriculture can be grouped into three categories: <h2><strong>Importance of Agriculture to the Individual</strong></h2> <ol> <li><strong>Provision of food:</strong> This is the <strong>most</strong> important contribution of agriculture to man because food is required for our survival. People need food in order to live. Farm animals also need food. The food could be meat, eggs, and milk from farm animals and products from many different crops such as yam, rice, maize etc.</li> <li><strong>Provision of shelter materials:</strong> This help to protect man from adverse weather conditions and predators. Agriculture is a source of materials used in building houses. Materials such as timbers and leaves are used in building houses.</li> <li><strong>Provision of materials for clothing</strong>: Agriculture provides fibre, silk and cotton from plants for textile production, hides and skins as well as wool from sheep for clothing, shoes, belts and bags.</li>

Classification of Animals based on Stomach Types and Feeding Pattern

<h1><strong>CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS BASED ON STOMACH TYPES AND FEEDING PATTERN</strong></h1> CONTENT Classification of Farm Animals based on; <ol> <li>Stomach Types: Ruminant and Non-ruminant Animals</li> <li>Feeding Pattern: Herbivores, Carnivores and Omnivores</li> </ol> <br> <h2><strong>Classifications of Farm Animals Based on Types of Stomach</strong></h2> Farm animals can be classified into <strong>two groups,</strong> according to the type of stomachs or digestive system that they possess. The first group is <strong>ruminants</strong> while the other group is <strong>non-ruminants</strong>. <h3><strong>Ruminants (Polygastrics)</strong></h3> These are animals that have complex stomachs and chew the cud e.g. cattle, sheep, goat, etc. They carry out regurgitation i.e. they act of bringing back already swallowed into the mouth for proper chewing. They chew the cud (rumination) which means they bring back their food into their mouth from the rumen through anti-peristaltic movement for proper chewing. This happened when the animal is resting. The complex stomach of a ruminant is made up of <strong>four cavities/</strong>chambers/compartments, namely;

Types of Agriculture based on Levels of Production

<h1><strong>TYPES OF AGRICULTURE BASED ON THE LEVELS OF PRODUCTION</strong></h1> CONTENT<strong> </strong> <ol> <li>Meaning and Characteristics of Subsistence Agriculture</li> <li>Meaning and Characteristics of Commercial Agriculture</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Subsistence Agriculture</strong></h2> <h3><strong>Meaning of Subsistence Agriculture</strong></h3> Subsistence agriculture is defined as the type of agriculture which involves the production of crops and animals by a farmer to feed himself and his family. He produces food for the consumption of the family with little or nothing left for sale. <h3><strong>Characteristics of Subsistence Agriculture</strong></h3> <ol> <li>It requires small capital/finance.</li> <li>Mixed cropping is mostly practiced.</li> <li>There is limited used of agro-chemicals e.g. pesticides and fertilizers.</li> <li>Unimproved varieties of crops and breeds of animals are used.</li> <li>There is little or no surplus for sale.</li> <li>It involves the used of crude/traditional tools such as hoes, machetes/cutlasses.</li> <li>It involves mainly the production of food crops.</li> <li>It is done on small scattered land.</li> <li>It uses family/unskilled labour.</li> <li>Yield/output is low.</li> </ol>

Uses of Farm Animals

<h1><strong>USES OF FARM ANIMALS </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Uses of Farm Animals</li> <li>Products and By-products of Farm Animals</li> <li>Summary of the Uses of Farm Animals</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Uses of Farm Animals</strong></h2> Farm animals are reared for the following purposes. They are reared for food, work, clothing, security/protection, sport and recreation, fertilizer, medicine, raw materials and livestock feeds. Let us explain each of the usage briefly. <strong>Food</strong>: Many food products are derived from farm animals. We get products like meat, milk, eggs from farm animals. Also animals’ by-products like feathers, bones, blood, droppings/dung, fat/oil are derived from farm animals. Food products and by-products from farm animals are very useful to man and industries. <strong>Work</strong>: Bigger farm animals can be used to work in the farm. Bullocks can be used to draw working machinery like ploughs, harrows, and ridgers while cultivating the soil. Donkey, camels are used to carry farm loads, while horse is used for transportation.

Types of Agricultural Practices in the Localities

<h1><strong>TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE LOCALITIES</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Pastoral Farming</li> <li>Arable Farming</li> <li>Mixed Farming</li> <li>Taungya Farming</li> <li>Fish Farming</li> <li>Livestock Farming</li> <li>Shifting Cultivation</li> <li>Land Rotation/Bush Fallowing</li> <li>Crop Rotation</li> </ol>   <h2>1.<strong> Pastoral Farming</strong></h2> This system involves the rearing of animals that feed/graze on forage crops (grasses and legumes), such as goats, sheep and cattle. Pastoral farming could take any of these three forms: <ul> <li>Ranching</li> <li>Nomadic herding</li> <li>Ley farming</li> </ul> <img class="size-full wp-image-31948 aligncenter" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/pastoral-farming.jpg" alt="Types of Agricultural Practices in the Localities - Pastoral farming" width="540" height="197" /> <h3><strong>Ranching</strong></h3> In this system, large numbers of animals are kept o a large expanse of enclosed land which may be under natural vegetation or planted pasture. The animals are allowed to move freely and graze within the confinement (Ranch). It is possible to adopt rotational grazing especially where the ranch is divided into sections/paddocks. An example of ranch in Nigeria is Obudu Cattle Ranch in Cross River state. <h4><strong>Advantages of Ranching</strong></h4> <ol> <li>Pasture and water are available all through the year.</li> <li>The animals are better managed and more protected from pests, diseases and death.</li> <li>Good quality animals are produced due to proper breeding programme.</li> </ol> <h4><strong>Disadvantages of Ranching </strong></h4> <ol> <li>It is expensive to manage a ranch.</li> <li>It will be difficult to give individual attention to each animal kept in the ranch.</li> <li>Outbreak of disease may wipe out the entire stock.</li> </ol>

Definition and Characteristics of Weeds

<h1><strong>DEFINITION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WEEDS </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Definition of Weeds</li> <li>Some Common Weeds</li> <li>Characteristics of Weeds</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Definition of Weeds</strong></h2> Weeds are plants growing where they are not wanted or cultivated. A plant may be weed in one farm but crop in another farm. For instance, a cowpea plant growing in a cassava plot is a weed. <h2><strong>Some Common Weeds</strong></h2> <p style="text-align: center;"><img class="size-full wp-image-36103 aligncenter" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/some-common-weeds-sida-acuta.jpg" alt="Meaning of weeds - Characteristics of weeds - Some common weeds - Sida acuta" width="604" height="195" /><strong>Sida acuta</strong></p>

Forms of Agricultural Activities in the Communities

<h1><strong>FORMS OF AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN THE COMMUNITIES </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Growing of Crops</li> <li>Rearing of Livestock</li> <li>Salving of Farm Produce</li> <li>Rearing of Fish (fishery)</li> <li>Horticulture</li> <li>Rearing of Snail/Heliculture</li> <li>Apiculture/Bee Keeping</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Forms of Agricultural Activities in the Communities</strong></h2> Agricultural activities is any activity directly related to the production or processing of crops or livestock. The followings are forms of agricultural activities in the communities that different people involve in: <ol> <li>Cultivation and growing of crops</li> <li>Rearing of livestock</li> <li>Rearing of fish (fishery)</li> <li>Salving of farm produce</li> <li>Horticulture</li> <li>Rearing of snail/Heliculture</li> <li>Apiculture/bee keeping</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Crop Farming</strong></h2> This involves the production of different kinds of crop plants useful to man and animals. Crop plants are either called <strong>food or arable crops</strong> and <strong>cash crops. </strong>Crops that are eaten by man either cooked or raw are referred to as <strong>food crops </strong>e.g. cassava, yam, vegetable, potatoes, bean, cowpea, soya bean, maize, guinea corn etc. Crops cultivated with the aim of selling them either to our local industries or for export is called <strong>cash crops </strong>e.g cocoa, cotton, groundnut, oil palm, timber, coffee, etc.

Classification of Weeds based on Habitat, Life Cycle and Shape of Leaves

Unfortunately we could not locate the table you're looking for.<h1><strong>CLASSIFICATION OF WEEDS</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Classification of Weeds based on Habitat</li> <li>Classification of Weeds based on Life Cycle</li> <li>Classification of Weeds based on the Shape of the Leaves</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Classification of Weeds based on Habitat</strong></h2> According to habitat, weeds are classified into the following three groups: (a) <strong>Aquatic weeds:</strong> These are weeds that grow on water. Examples are water hyacinth, water lettuce, water lily etc. (b) <strong>Terrestrial weeds:</strong> These are weeds that grow on land. Most weeds are terrestrial weeds. Examples are goat weeds, siam weeds, carpet grass, tridax, aspilia, elephant grass, water leaf, etc. (c) <strong>Epiphytic/parasitic weeds</strong>: These are weeds that grow on other plants.

Parts of Flowering Plants and their Functions

<h1><strong>PARTS OF FLOWERING PLANTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Parts of Flowering Plant and their Functions</li> <li>Important Terms</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Parts of a Flowering Plant </strong></h2> A flowering plant is made up of two parts, namely; <ol> <li>the root system</li> <li>the shoot system</li> </ol> <h3>1.<strong> Root System: </strong></h3> The root system refers to the portion of the plant which develops inside the soil. The root has many tiny structures on it called the root hairs through which water, mineral salts and other nutrients are absorbed by the plant through a process known as <strong>osmosis. </strong> The root system is divided into two main types namely; <ol> <li>Tap/main root</li> <li>Fibrous/adventitious</li> </ol> <p style="text-align: center;"><img class="size-full wp-image-31956 aligncenter" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/flowering-plants.jpg" alt="" width="634" height="322" /><strong>A Labelled Diagram of a Flowering Plant </strong></p> <h4><strong>Functions of the Root</strong></h4> (i)<strong> Anchorage:</strong> for holding the plant firmly to the ground. (ii)<strong> Nutrient absorption:</strong> Roots absorbs water and mineral elements from the soil which are then pass unto other plant parts. This is the most important function of the root to the plant. (iii)<strong> Storage</strong>: In some plants the roots acts as storage organs e.g carrot, cassava, etc. (iv)<strong> Reproduction</strong>: Some plants used their roots for vegetative propagation e.g. bread fruit, sweet potato, citrus etc. (v)<strong> Nutrient fixation:</strong> Roots of leguminous crops harbors some nitrogen fixing bacteria which helps to convert atmospheric nitrogen into soil nitrate for plant use. (vi)<strong> Erosion control:</strong> Root of grasses help to bind soil particles together thus preventing erosion.

Uses of Weeds; Methods of Weed Control

<h1><strong>USES OF WEEDS; METHODS OF WEED CONTROL</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Uses of Weeds</li> <li>Methods of Weeds Control</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Uses of Weeds</strong></h2> Weeds are used for the following purposes: <ol> <li>Some weeds are used as cover crops.</li> <li>Weeds are used as forage grasses and legumes for feeding animals e.g. elephant grass.</li> <li>Weeds are used to prepare compost and green manure e.g. mucuna, pueraria.</li> <li>They are used to control soil erosion e.g. bahama grass.</li> <li>They serve medicinal purposes e.g. lemon grass.</li>

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