Clefs/Letter-Names of Lines and Spaces (Treble and Bass Staff)

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>CLEFS/LETTER NAMES OF LINES AND SPACES (TREBLE AND BASS STAFF)</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Definition of Clef</li> <li>Functions of Clef</li> <li>Kinds of Clef</li> <li>Treble Staff or Stave</li> <li>Bass or F Clef (pronounced 'base' )</li> <li>Bass Staff or Stave</li> <li>Musical Terms</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Definition of Clef</strong></h2> Clef is a French word, meaning Key. Clef is defined as a symbol placed at the commencement [beginning] of a stave [staff] which indicates the pitch of a musical note and also fixes the letter names of the lines and spaces.   <h2><strong>Functions of Clef</strong></h2> (i) To indicate the pitch of a musical note. (ii) To fix the letter names of the lines and spaces.   <h2><strong>Kinds of Clef </strong></h2> At this level, we shall consider the two major clefs which are also in common use. (i) Treble or G clef. (ii) Bass or F clef. The letter names lines and spaces are taken from the seven letters of the alphabets; A B C D E F G called musical alphabets. <br> <h2><strong>Treble or G Clef</strong></h2> This clef starts from the second line of the stave which is called G, and curls round it. <img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-20419" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/treble-or-g-clef.jpg" alt="Treble or G Clef" width="85" height="76" /> When G clef is placed on a stave or staff, the stave automatically becomes a<strong> Treble Stave</strong>. Treble stave consist of five parallel lines and four spaces as shown below.

Dotted Notes and their Values

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>DOTTED NOTES AND THEIR VALUES</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Definition of Dotted Notes</li> <li>Effects of Dots on a Note</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Definition of Dotted Notes</strong></h2> Dotted notes refer to notes which have dots placed after them. In other words, they are notes with dots, e.g.

The Grand Staff/Great Staff

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>GRAND STAFF/GREAT STAFF</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>The Great Staff</li> <li>Ledger Lines</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>The Great Staff</strong></h2> The great stave consists of 11 lines and 10 spaces. When the bass and treble clef are combined and connected by a brace (left) and lines, they become the grand staff. This greatly increases the range of pitches that can be noted, and is often used in piano music due to the piano's wide range.<img class="size-full wp-image-20425 aligncenter" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/the-grand-staff-great-staff.jpg" alt="The grand staff/Great Staff" width="235" height="179" />

Methods of Extending Note Values

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>METHODS OF EXTENDING NOTE VALUES</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Methods of Extending Note Values</li> <li>The Effects of Tie</li> <li>The Effect of Pause</li> <li>The Effect of Dot</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Methods of Extending Note Values</strong></h2> Apart from dots, there are other methods of extending note values. These include Tie and Pause or Fermata. In other words, there are three major methods of extending note values, namely dots, tie and pause (fermata). <br> <h2><strong>The Effects of a Tie</strong></h2>

Historical Periods of Music

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>HISTORICAL PERIODS OF MUSIC</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Musical Periods and Some Major Composers</li> <li>Life and Works of G. F. Handel</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Musical Periods and Some Major Composers</strong></h2> The historical development of western music is divided into stages, popularly referred to as “musical periods”. Apart from the early musical periods from B.C. to 1400 A.D., there are such periods as: (i) Renaissance period (1400 – 1600AD) (ii) Baroque period (1600 – 1750AD) (iii) Classical period (1750 – 1820 AD) (iv) Romantic period (1820 – 1900AD) (v) Modern period (1900 to date)   <h2><strong>Life and Works of G. F. Handel</strong></h2> <img class="size-full wp-image-20431 aligncenter" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/historical-periods-of-music-life-and-work-of-GF-Handel.jpg" alt="Historical periods of music life and work of GF Handel" width="274" height="303" />

Scales

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>SCALES</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Definition of Scale</li> <li>Types of Scale</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Definition of Scale</strong></h2> The word <em>scale</em> comes from the Latin word “scala”. It means ladder. The first seven letters of the English alphabet A-G are used to express the different sounds in use. Scales refer to a series of notes that go in an ascending and descending manner. The <strong>Major scale</strong> is the foundation from which all other scales are formed. C major scale begins with a C and ends with a C. The same rule applies with the rest of the keys where a D Major Scale begins and ends with a D, F Major Scale begins with an F and ends with an F and so on. The notes on a major scale is numbered from 1 to 8, this signifies the intervals. <br> <h2><strong>Types of Scale</strong></h2> The types of scales are;

Singing

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>SINGING</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Singing</li> <li>Types of Singing Voice</li> <li>Singing Nigeria's National Anthem</li> <li>The Tonic Solfa of the Anthem of Federal Republic of Nigeria\</li> <li>Practical</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Singing</strong></h2> Singing is the use of voice to produce songs.   <h2><strong>Types of Singing Voice</strong></h2> There are four main classifications of the singing voice, namely: Soprano, Alto, tenor and Bass; (i)<strong> Soprano</strong>: The soprano is usually sung by women, though young castrated boys in the olden days also sing soprano. (ii)<strong> Alto</strong>: This Alto voice is common among the women. The only difference between soprano and alto voices is that the range is lower than the soprano. (iii) <strong>Tenor:</strong> This is the highest voice in the male category and it can be light, heavy, robust, etc; depending on the quality of the voice of the singer. (iv)<strong> Bass: </strong>It is the deepest range, usually for men.

Major Scale

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>MAJOR SCALE</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Tetrachord</li> <li>Tones and Semitones</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Tetrachord</strong></h2> Tetrachord is an equal division of a major scale. The diatonic major scale with its eight notes can be divided into two equal parts, each containing four notes, e.g. C D E F G A B C. When divided into two halves, C D E F into one group and G A B C into another group. Each group of four notes is called TETRACHORDS. The first half is known as lower tetrachord [L T], while the second half the upper tetrachord [UT]. Thus in the above example C to F becomes the lower tetrachord [C D E F] and G to C [G A B C] is the upper tetrachord. Major scales contain five tones and two semitones, it therefore means that each tetrachord has two tones and one semitone. For example, C to D is a tone while D to E is a semitone.[L T]. S similarly G to A is a tone, and B to C is a semitone.

Major Scale of C Natural

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>CONSTRUCTION OF MAJOR SCALE (C NATURAL)</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Major Scales</li> <li>Keyboard Finger Chart</li> <li>Fingering for Scales</li> <li>Right Hand Fingering Suggestion</li> <li>Left Hand Fingering Suggestion</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Major Scales</strong></h2> In music theory, the <strong>major scale</strong> or <strong>Ionian</strong><strong> scale</strong> is one of the diatonic scales. It is made up of seven distinct notes, and an eighth note which duplicates the first note an octave higher. The simplest major scale to play on the piano or write is C major, the only major scale not to require sharps or flats, using only the white keys on the piano keyboard: <img class="size-full wp-image-37684 aligncenter" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/construction-of-major-scales-C-natural.jpg" alt="Major Scale of C Natural - Construction of major scales C natural" width="576" height="222" /> <br> <h2><strong>Keyboard Finger Chart</strong></h2>

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