Consequences of Family Size on the Individual and the National Economy

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>THE CONSEQUENCES OF LARGE/SMALL FAMILY SIZE</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Consequences of Large Family Size on the Quality of Individual Lives</li> <li>Consequences of Large Family Size on the National Economy</li> <li>Consequences of Small Family Size on the Quality of Individual Lives</li> <li>Consequences of Small Family Size on the Economy</li> </ol> <br> <h2><strong>Consequences of Large Family Size on the Quality of Individual Lives</strong></h2> The large size of a family affects the quality of life of the individual in the following ways: <ol> <li>The members may be malnourished, that is they may not be able to feed well.</li> <li>There is tendency of fighting with one another in a big family.</li> <li>Access to good and qualitative education might not be possible because of shortage in family resources.</li> <li>There will be jealousy and envy in the large family.</li> <li>Many members of large family grow up in hostile environment.</li> <li>Room occupancy ratio will be high in a large family. Over population per room might occur.</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Consequences of Large Family Size on the National Economy</strong></h2> The size of a large family affects the national economy in the following ways:

Effects of Social Problems in Nigeria

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>EFFECTS OF SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Social Problems as they Affect the Individual</li> <li>Social Problems as they Affect the Family</li> <li>Social Problems Affecting the Nation</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Social Problems as they Affect the Individual</strong></h2> The following are some of the social problems affecting individuals in Nigeria: <ol> <li><strong>Sexual immorality:</strong> Unwholesome evil pressures from the opposite sex that exposes individuals to varieties of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such as syphilis, gonorrhoea, herpes, staphylococcus, HIV/AIDS, and unwanted pregnancies, dropping out of school and thus truncating one’s education and early unplanned premature marriage or single parenthood for ladies. etc.</li> <li><strong>Poverty:</strong> Poverty caused by unemployment or high cost of living prevents individuals to meet their basic needs of life. Poverty itself generates malnutrition, sicknesses and diseases. This sometimes lead to divorce cases and broken homes. Children who could not complete their education due to poverty of their parents sometimes end up becoming miscreants, area boys, prostitutes etc in the society.</li> <li><strong>Negative peer pressure:</strong> Peer pressure on some youths in institutions of higher learning has made them join secret cults that ruin their careers. Peer group influence also cause some youths to become drug addicts that may lead them to insanity, schizophrenic disorders like paranoia, psychosis and untimely death.</li> <li><strong>Crimes:</strong> Crimes in the society have led to insecurity of individual lives and properties.</li> </ol> <br> <h2><strong>Social Problems as they Affect the Family</strong></h2> The following are some of the social problems affecting families in Nigeria:

Characteristics of Large and Small Family Sizes

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>THE CHARACTERISTICS OF LARGE/SMALL FAMILY SIZE</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning and Characteristics Family Size</li> <li>Characteristics of Large Family Size – father, mother, and many children</li> <li>Characteristics of Small Family Size – father, mother and very few children</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Family Size</strong></h2> Family size means the number of people in a family. A family is said to have small size if it comprises father, mother and few (usually one to four) children. A large family size is made of father, mother and more than four children. <br> <h2><strong>Characteristics of Large Family Size</strong></h2> The nature of a large family size can be easily explained under the following headings:Summarily, large family size has the following characteristics:

Causes of Contemporary Social Problems in Nigeria

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>CAUSES OF CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Causes of Contemporary Social Problems in Nigeria</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Causes of Contemporary Social Problems in Nigeria</strong></h2> Some causes of social problems in Nigeria are: <ol> <li>Poverty in the midst of plenty in the society or community.</li> <li>Corruption among leaders.</li> <li>Negative Peer Group Influence</li> <li>Influence of the Mass Media</li> <li>Unchecked access to the internet.</li> <li>Divorce and broken homes</li> <li>Cheating within the group.</li> <li>Sexual immorality in the society.</li> <li>Cultism among the youths and elders.</li> <li>Parents encouraging their wards’ involvement in examination malpractice.</li> <li>Greed for wealth at all costs without legitimate labour for it.</li> <li>Lack of love and parental care in the family.</li> <li>Unfaithful religious leaders.</li> <li>Indiscipline</li> <li>Disobedience to the laws of the land.</li> <li>Ignorance</li> <li>Injustice</li> <li>Proliferation of arms and ammunition.</li> </ol> <h2><strong>Poverty</strong></h2> Poverty means the inability to provide the basic needs of life for oneself, family and dependants. This basic needs primarily are food, clothing and shelter. In addition, inability to provide quality education to enable proper and complete socialization of one’s children to make them live decent lives and be fulfilled are some of the causes of social problems in the society. This is so because children brought up improperly develop to become social deviants who are lured into all kinds of crimes and illegitimate means of making money in order to keep body and soul together. Poverty sometimes leads to broken homes and disjointed up-bringing of children. Although Nigeria is blessed with many natural resources that should make Nigerian rich, the wealth is hijacked by the few leaders and make many Nigerians to live in poverty. About 70% of the population live below the bread line; meaning that majority of Nigerians are poor in the midst of plenty. No wonder Nigeria is classified by the United Nations recently as 40<sup>th</sup> among the world’s poorest countries.

The Roles and Responsibilities of Members of a Family as a Social Group

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>THE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF MEMBERS OF A FAMILY AS A PRIMARY SOCIAL GROUP</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>The Roles and Responsibilities of Members of a Family as a Primary Social Group</li> <li>General Functions of the Family</li> <li>Roles of the Father in the Family</li> <li>Roles of the Mother in the Family</li> <li>Roles of the Children in the Family</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>The Roles and Responsibilities of Members of a Family as a Primary Social Group</strong></h2> To enjoy and sustain the family as a primary social group, each member has vital roles to play. The family is the source from which the society take its root. Children and adults learn responsibilities from home before they go out to the larger society to demonstrate it. An adage says “charity begins at home”. <br> <h2><strong>General Functions of the Family</strong></h2> The following are the general functions of the family: <ol> <li><strong>Procreation</strong>: bringing new members of the family into the world for continuity of the family and the society.</li> <li><strong>Provision:</strong> The basic necessities of life such as food, shelter and clothing are provided in the family.</li> <li><strong>Moral Guidance:</strong> Training of the children in line with the acceptable norms of the society in good character formation.</li>

Common Social Problems in Nigeria

Complexity: Standard

<h1><strong>COMMON SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA </strong></h1> CONTENT1. Meaning of Contemporary Social Problems2. Contemporary Social Problems in Nigeria <ul> <li>Examination Malpractice</li> <li>Cultism</li> <li>HIV/AIDS</li> </ul>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Contemporary Social Problems</strong></h2> Contemporary issues and social problems are happenings or challenges that are currently affecting many people in the society. Social problems could be described as those social vices that came about as a result of urbanization, development of cities, increase in human population, interaction among people of different social background, different ethnic groups, contact with foreign cultures, use of electronic media, ICT, TV, internet services, prohibited literature etc. <br> <h2><strong>Contemporary Social Problems in Nigeria</strong></h2> Among these social issues that have become problems are: <ol> <li>Examination malpractice</li> <li>Cultism</li> <li>Terrorism</li> <li>HIV/AIDS</li> <li>Human trafficking</li> <li>Prostitution</li> <li>Drug abuse</li> <li>Ritual killing</li> <li>Area boys syndrome</li> <li>Militancy</li> <li>Political killings</li> <li>Rigging of elections</li> <li>Advance fees fraud (419)</li> </ol> <h3><strong>Examination Malpractice</strong></h3> Examination malpractice is the term used to describe the various foul means employed by students and their helpers to pass examinations and get unmerited grades and results. Students engage in examination malpractice at every level of education but it is more pronounced at the secondary and tertiary institutions of learning. It is one of the common social problems in Nigeria and a social vice that reached a high proportion in Nigerian education sector. In recent years, government at the Federal level was forced to enact Decree 18 of 1984 in order to curtail the practice. <br> <h4><strong>Causes of Examination Malpractice</strong></h4> <ol> <li><strong>Crave for good grades:</strong> The crave to earn good grades in order to secure white collar jobs or gain admission to higher institutions.</li> <li><strong>Laziness: </strong>Those who are too lazy to study will not have the required knowledge and so want to cheat during examinations.</li> <li><strong>Truancy: </strong>Some students absent themselves from classes only to come to examination halls with intention to cheat.</li> <li><strong>Lack of self-confidence: </strong>Due to lack adequate preparation, most students lose confidence in their ability to pass and so resort to cheating.</li> <li><strong>Lack of enough provision for higher education: </strong>There is always the lack of enough space for all to gain admission into higher institutions of learning in the country. This constitute a serious factor for cheating in order to score high cut-off marks.</li> <li><strong>Preference for some courses of study over others: </strong>Parents feel proud if their children are admitted for courses like Medicine, Law, Architecture, Petroleum Engineering etc irrespective of whether their children possess the ability and interest for such courses. In order to be ranked among the successful in the society, they encourage their children in cheating to pass requisite subjects at high grades.</li> <li><strong>The desire to live big: </strong>Many students prefer pleasure to hard-work, yet they want to live big in the society. Hence they resort to cheating in examinations to secure certificates that will guarantee their success in getting high paid jobs.</li> <li><strong>Overpopulation in many schools: </strong>Since the few who do very well may be promoted or admitted into higher institutions. Students therefore cheat in order to excel in the exams and over their mates.</li> <li><strong>Corrupt invigilators and Supervisor: </strong>The students know that if they offer bribes to invigilators, they will be allowed to cheat in the examination hall. Worse still, the proposal to offer bribe for cheating will in some cases originate from the supervisors or invigilators.</li> <li><strong>Many students are desperate: </strong>Many students think that passing the examination is a “do or die” affair. They want to excel by all means. Some wants promises from parents fulfilled, others want to be on TV or newspaper as the best in one form of the examination or the other (though cheats hardly excel).</li> </ol> <br> <h4><strong>Effects of Examination Malpractice</strong></h4>

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