Soil Formation and Profile Development

<h1><strong>SOIL FORMATION AND PROFILE DEVELOPMENT</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Introduction</li> <li>Factors of Soil Formation</li> <li>Processes of Soil Formation</li> <li>Soil Profile Development</li> <li>Importance of Soil Profile<u></u></li> </ol> <strong> </strong> <h2><strong>Introduction</strong></h2> The soil is a very important factor for agricultural activity and the survival of man. Soil is the loose weathered material covering the surface of the earth, which supports life. It can also be defined as the outermost part of the earth that is formed from the mixture of minerals and decaying organic matter which extends from the surface down to the limit of biological forces.   <h2><strong>Factors of Soil Formation</strong></h2> The transformation of rocks into soil is referred to as soil formation. The first stage in the process of soil formation is the <strong>Weathering of rocks</strong> which involves the breaking of rocks into smaller particles and eventually into individual minerals that the rock is composed of. Weathering of rock can either be<strong> physica</strong>l such as through water, wind, Pressure, ice and temperature, or <strong>chemical </strong>which involves changes in the chemical composition of the rock.There are a number of factors that influence the rate, type and quality of soil formed in a location. There are five factors that determine or influence soil formation, namely: 1. Parent material <ul> <li>Climate</li> <li>Topography</li> <li>Living organisms</li> <li>Time</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Parent Material</strong></h3> The type of materials, that is structure, texture, and mineral composition present in the parent rock will also determine the type of soil formed. Parent materials are important in the following ways:

Types, Composition and Properties of Soil

<h1>TYPES, COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SOIL</h1> CONTENT   <h2>Meaning of Soil<strong> </strong></h2> Soil is the loose weathered material covering the earth surface which supports the growth of plants and sustains human and animal life. Soil consists of mineral materials e.g. sand, clay, silt and gravel, organic materials which are made of plants and animals, H<sub>2</sub>O (water), air and microbes. <h2>Types of Soil</h2> There are three types of soil formed as a result of the breakdown of rocks that is weathering. They are as follows: 1. <strong>Clay Soil</strong> This is a type of soil that has clay constituting the major proportion about 40% and above while the other part contains silt and sand. Types of crops that can grow on clay soil: rice, sugarcane, etc. It possesses the following characteristics.  

Simple Farm Tools

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<h1>SIMPLE FARM TOOLS, USES AND MAINTENANCE</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Simple Farm Tools</li> <li>Types of Farm Tools</li> <li>Identification and Description of Each of the Farm Tools</li> <li>Identification of Various Accessory Tools and their Uses</li> <li>General Maintenance of Simple Farm Tools</li> </ol>     <h2>Meaning of Simple Farm Tools</h2> Simple farm tools are simple, handy tools made up of metals and wooden handles where applicable and used mainly by peasant farmers. They are designed to help the hands to apply force in farm operations. They make the work easier, faster and safer. <h2>Types of Farm Tools</h2> These tools can be classified into the following: <ul> <li>Farm and horticultural tools</li> <li>Workshop or accessory tools.</li> </ul>   <h3>Farm and Horticultural Tools</h3> These are simple tools used for cultivation of arable crops, fruit, vegetable and flowers. Example include cutlasses, hoes, rakes, hand forks, garden fork , shears, pick axe, spades, hand trowel, shovel, secateurs, watering can, harvesting sickle, head pan, wheel barrow, axe, pruning saw, budding knife, budizzor castrator, etc. <h3>Workshop or Accessory Tools</h3> These are tools used in workshop to repair or maintain farm implement and farm machines. They include hammer, spanner, screw driver, pliers, nut and bolt, chisel, hack saw, file, punches etc. EVALUATION <ol> <li>Differentiate between farm tools and accessory tools. Give five examples of each.</li> </ol>   <h2>Identification and Description of Each of the Farm Tools</h2>

Farm Machinery and Implements

FARM MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS CONTENT <ol> <li>Farm machinery- Tractor, Bulldozer, Sheller, Dryers, Incubators.</li> <li>Tractor- coupled implements: Plough, Harrow, Ridgers, Planters, Harvesters, Sprayer.</li> </ol>   Definition of Farm Machinery Farm machinery refers to complex machine and implement used for carrying out farming operations. Examples include: tractors, bulldozers, shellers, driers, and incubators. The most important implement or machines in the farm, which is used for operating many farm implements is the <em>tractor.</em>   Classification of Farm Machines Farm machines and implements can be classified into three groups based on the source and generation of power as follows: (i) Primary Machines: These are the machines that can supply power to other machines and implement for their farming operations. An example is the tractor. (ii) Secondary Machines: These are tractors coupled or mounted machinery or implement used for different operations. Examples are Ploughs, harrows, ridgers, planters, harvesters, and sprayers. (iii) Intermediate Machines: These are powered by a tractor, electricity, or an electric generating set. Examples include grinding machines, incubators.   Examples of Farm Machinery Examples of this farm machinery are: 1. Tractor It is a powerful multi-purpose farm machine capable of using its power to perform various farm operations. It has internal combustion engine with either two or four strokes. It transmits power through the power take-off (PTO) shaft, or by means of a moving belt connecting the tractor to another machine. A draw bar attached to the tractor is used in coupling other farm implement to it. Tractors are of different types, namely:

Farm Machinery Maintenance Practices and Precautionary Measures

<h1>FARM MACHINERY MAINTENANCE PRACTICES AND PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Reasons for Maintaining Farm Machines</li> <li>Maintenance of Farm Machinery</li> </ol>   <h2>Reasons for Maintaining Farm Machines</h2> The reasons for maintenance practice are as follows: <ol> <li>To ensure maximum or efficient use of farm machine</li> <li>To keep the machines in a good working condition.</li> <li>To increase their useful life or life span</li> <li>To prevent them from becoming obsolete or from deteriorating</li> <li>To detect or spot the potential machine failure and safety from hazards</li> <li>To prevent vibrations that can produce irritating noise on the farm.</li> <li>Checking oil and water levels regularly prevents any overheating or seizure of the engine.</li> <li>Maintenance of farm machines at times reduces cost, that is, the cost of purchasing new ones may be high.</li> </ol> EVALUATION <ol> <li>State five reasons why farm machines should be maintained.</li> </ol>   <h2>Maintenance of Farm Machinery</h2> <h3>1. Periodic Maintenance of Farm Machinery</h3> Maintenance practices that should be carried out periodically or at regular intervals on the machines include the following:

Agricultural Engineering and Mechanization

<h1>AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND MECHANIZATION</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Definition and Meaning of Farm Mechanization</li> <li>Mechanized Agricultural Operations</li> <li>Advantages and Disadvantages of Farm Mechanization</li> <li>Limitation/Problems of Farm Mechanization</li> <li>Prospects of Farm Mechanization</li> </ol>   <h2>Definition and Meaning of Farm Mechanization</h2> Mechanization can be defined as the use of modern implements as well as motorized equipment like plough, harrow, ridger, and also the use of agro-chemicals like insecticides, herbicides, fertilizers and improved seeds in the farm. Farm Mechanization can be defined as the application of engineering, scientific and technological principles to agricultural production, storage and processing of farm products. Farm Mechanization means the use of modern farm inputs instead of human efforts to increase agricultural productivity and efficiency.   <h2>Mechanized Agricultural Operations</h2> Farm Mechanization covers almost all agricultural operations such as land preparation(ploughing, harrowing and ridging), planting, husbandry, fertilizer application, weeding, crop health, irrigation, crop harvesting, storage and processing, and animal care and management, milking, egg collection as well as processing and storage of farm animal produce. EVALUATION <ol> <li>Define the term <em>mechanization.</em></li> <li>What do you understand by farm mechanization?</li> <li>Mention seven agricultural operations that can be mechanized</li> <li>State a machine that can be used to carried out such operations.</li> </ol>   <h2>Advantages and Disadvantages of Farm Mechanization</h2> <h3>Advantages of Farm Mechanization</h3> The following are the advantages of farm mechanization:

Sources of Farm Power

<h1>SOURCES OF FARM POWER</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Farm Power</li> <li>Sources of Farm Power</li> </ol>   <h2>Meaning of Farm Power</h2> Power is defined as the energy or force that can be used to do work. It is measured in watts (w) and kilowatts (kw). It is expressed as work done over time taken. \(P = \frac{force × distance}{time}\) Farm power can therefore be described as any source of energy used in carrying out farm operations or the various sources of energy used in doing farm work. In all these operations, human power is by far the earliest source of power available on the farm and this is considered to be the very important in all activities carried out on the farm.   <h2>Sources of Farm Power</h2> The common sources of Farm Power are: Human, Animal, Mechanical, Solar, Wind, Electrical, Water, Fuel and Bio gas. <h3>1. Human Power</h3> This refers to human being as a source of energy for doing farm work. This source of power involves many people than all other sources of power. The energy dissipated during work is rated to be about 75 watts. Human labour used as power in the farm may be skilled or unskilled. It can also be hired or supplied by the family members. Human power is commonly used with traditional tools and it is mobile, hence it should be handled with care. <h4>Advantages of Human Power</h4> <ol> <li>It is a cheap source of power compared to machines</li> <li>Man uses his intelligence to control all other sources of farm power.</li> <li>It can be controlled.</li> <li>It brings about least damage to the crops, animals and their products.</li> <li>Human power is easily available</li> </ol> <h4>Disadvantages of Human Power</h4> <ol> <li>Output is very low as it can only work for few hours.</li> <li>Man can easily get fatigued</li> <li>Human beings can get sick and eventually die.</li> <li>Human beings cannot do heavy jobs such as clearing, ridging, weeding for a long time.</li> <li>If trained or specialized, it may be expensive.</li> </ol>   <h3>2. Animal Power</h3>

Agro-Allied Industries and Relationship between Agriculture and Industry

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<h1><strong>AGRO-ALLIED INDUSTRIES AND RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Agro-allied Industries</li> <li>Agro-allied Industries and their Raw Materials</li> <li>Industries that Produce Farm Inputs</li> <li>Relationship between Agriculture and Industries</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Agro-allied Industries</strong></h2> The term <em>agro-allied industries</em> refers to industries that make use of agricultural produce or products as raw material to produce other finished products. It also refers to the produce that the farmers use as an input in the farm. The continuous existence of these industries is made possible through the raw material derived from agriculture. These industries help to; <ol> <li>provide market for agricultural products;</li> <li>provide employment opportunities;</li> <li>generate income for the government;</li> <li>influence or enhance development of rural areas;</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Agro-allied Industries and their Raw Materials</strong></h2> The following industries make use of agricultural produce or products as raw materials:

Environmental Factors Affecting Agricultural Production

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<h1><strong>ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Introduction</li> <li>Climate Factors</li> <li>Biotic Factors</li> <li>Edaphic Factors</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Introduction</strong></h2> Agricultural activities such as crop and livestock production are affected by several environmental factors. These environmental factors determine and influence the distribution of crops and livestock as well as the performance and productivity of crops and livestock.   <h2><strong>Climatic Factors </strong></h2> Climate can be defines as the average weather condition of a place measured over a long period of time (over 35 yrs). Elements of climate include temperature, sunlight, wind, rainfall, relative humidity, pressure, radiant energy and cloud cover. <h3><strong>Temperature </strong></h3> This is the degree of hotness or coldness of a place at a given time. The effects on plants and animals include; <ol> <li>It is essential for germination.</li> <li>It is essential for growth of plants.</li> <li>It is necessary for photosynthesis.</li> <li>It affects distribution of crops and animals.</li> <li>It affects maturity of crops i.e; ripening of fruits.</li> <li>It also determines the rate of evapo-transpiration.</li> </ol> <h3><strong>Sunlight</strong></h3> Plants need sunlight to grow. The effects of sunlight on plants include the following:

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