**COMPUTING DEVICES: PRE-COMPUTER AGE TO THE 19TH CENTURY**

CONTENT

Features, Components and Uses of Computing Devices

- The Abacus
- The Slide Rule
- Napier’s Bone
- Pascal’s Calculator
- Leibniz Multiplier
- The Jacquard Loom
- The Difference Engine
- Hollerith Census Machine
- The Analytical Engine
- Burrough’s Machine

**Features, Components and Uses of Computing Devices**

**The Abacus**

Abacus is an instrument used in performing arithmetic calculations. It is probably the first calculating device. The Chinese invented it, and because of its success it spread from China to other countries. The abacus is also called a counting frame, it consist of a tablet or frame bearing parallel wires or grooves on which counters or beads are moved. A modern abacus consists of wooden frame with beads on parallel wires, and a crossbar oriented perpendicular to the wires that divides the beads into two groups. Each column or wire represents one place in the decimal system. The Abacus was used for addition and subtraction. It could not carry out complex mathematical operations.

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