1. Introduction
  2. Climate Factors
  3. Biotic Factors
  4. Edaphic Factors


Agricultural activities such as crop and livestock production are affected by several environmental factors. These environmental factors determine and influence the distribution of crops and livestock as well as the performance and productivity of crops and livestock.  

Climatic Factors

Climate can be defines as the average weather condition of a place measured over a long period of time (over 35 yrs). Elements of climate include temperature, sunlight, wind, rainfall, relative humidity, pressure, radiant energy and cloud cover.


This is the degree of hotness or coldness of a place at a given time. The effects on plants and animals include;
  1. It is essential for germination.
  2. It is essential for growth of plants.
  3. It is necessary for photosynthesis.
  4. It affects distribution of crops and animals.
  5. It affects maturity of crops i.e; ripening of fruits.
  6. It also determines the rate of evapo-transpiration.


Plants need sunlight to grow. The effects of sunlight on plants include the following:

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