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  1. Hydrocarbon and its Main Classes
  2. Crude Oil and Natural Gas
  3. Refining of Crude Oil
  4. Fractional Distillation of Oil
  5. Cracking and Reforming of Petroleum Fractions
  6. Octane Number or Rating
  7. The Importance of Crude Oil and Petrochemicals


Hydrocarbon and its Main Classes

Hydrocarbons, as the name implies, are compounds of only two elements; hydrogen and carbon. There are many such organic compounds.

Hydrocarbons are usually classified into two main groups namely, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  1. Saturated hydrocarbons (Alkanes). The alkanes have the general molecular formula CnH2n+2. . Members of this group include Methane, CH4, ethane, C2H6, propane, C3H8, butane, C4H10. The structure of butane is given below.
  2. Unsaturated hydrocarbons (Alkenes and alkynes). The alkenes have the general formula is CnH2n.

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