# LOGICAL REASONING

CONTENT

- Meaning of Logic and Mathematical Logic
- Simple statements.
- Meaning of simple statement – (i) True or false (ii) negation of simple statements.
- Compound statements (i) Meaning (ii) Conjunction (iii) Disjunction (iv) Implication (v) bi-implication.
- Logical operators and symbols. (i) List of logical operators and symbols (ii) Truth value of logical operators.

## Meaning of Logic and Mathematical Logic

Logic is the science of thinking about or explaining the reason for something. It is a particular method or system of reasoning which arrives at conclusions by way of valid evidence.

Mathematical logic can be defined as the study of the relationship between certain objects such as numbers, functions, geometric figures etc.

Example: The following are logical statements;

- Nigeria is in Africa
- The river Niger is in Enugu
- \(-2 + 5 = 3\)
- \(3 ≤ 7\)

(**N.B.: The educator should ask the students to give their examples)**

Example: The following are not logical statements because they are neither true nor false.

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