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OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson students should be able to

  • define climate, vegetation and soil.
  • discuss the relationship between climate and vegetation and they affect the soil content.
  • draw a sketch map of Nigeria showing the vegetation zones and give the characteristics of these zones.
  • state and describe the two types of seasons and four types of climate in Nigeria.
  • give the meaning, causes, effects and control of desert encroachment.


Climate is the average weather condition of the atmosphere over a very long period of time. Important elements of climate that need discussion include temperature, wind and rainfall.
(a) Temperature is defined as the degree of hotness or coldness of a place. The temperature in Nigeria is not uniform.

  1. It varies from place to place.
  2. It varies with altitude.
  3. It varies with seasons.
  4. Variation in annual range.

(b) Wind is defined as air in motion. There are four local types of winds in Nigeria.

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