**WHOLE NUMBERS**

CONTENT
- Development of number system
- Place values
- Counting: tens; hundreds; thousands; millions;…trillions
- Translating numbers written in figures to words
- Quantitative reasoning

**Development of Number System**

There were many ancient ways of writing numbers part of which are the Hindu Arabic system, tally system, Roman system, etc. While so many have gone into extinction, the Roman system is still in use up to date.
**The Roman Number System**

The Roman number system was developed about 300BC. The Romans used capital letters of the alphabet for numerals. The tables below show how to use the letters.
1 | I | 11 | XI | 30 | XXX | 500 | D | ||||

2 | II | 12 | XII | 40 | XL | 600 | DC | ||||

3 | III | 13 | XIII | 50 | L | 700 | DCC | ||||

4 | IV | 14 | XIV | 60 | LX | 800 | DCCC | ||||

5 | V | 15 | XV | 70 | LXX | 900 | CM | ||||

6 | VI | 16 | XVI | 80 | LXXX | 1,000 | M | ||||

7 | VII | 17 | XVII | 90 | XC | 2,000 | MM | ||||

8 | VIII | 18 | XVIII | 100 | C | 3,000 | MMM | ||||

9 | IX | 19 | XIX | 200 | CC | 4,000 | MV | ||||

10 | X | 20 | XX | 300 | CCC | 5,000 | V | ||||

400 | CD | 10,000 | X |

**Example 1:**Write these numbers in Roman numerals. (a) 25 (b) 105 (c) 49 (d) 2011

**Solution:**(a) 25 = XXV (b) 105 = CV (c) 49 = XLIX (d) 2011 = MMXI

**Example 2:**What numbers do these Roman numerals represent? (a) XLVI (b) XCIX (c) MMCMLIV (d) MMMDCI Solution: (a) XLIV = 46 (b) XCIX = 99 (c) MMCMLIV = 2954 (d) MMMDCI = 3601

**CLASS ACTIVITY**1. Write these numbers in Roman Numerals (a) 352 (b) 1 257 (c) 2456 2. Add the following Roman numerals and give your answers in figures (a) XXV and CV (b) XXIV and MDCIX.

**What are whole numbers? **

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