Agro-Allied Industries and Relationship between Agriculture and Industry

<h1><strong>AGRO-ALLIED INDUSTRIES AND RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Agro-allied Industries</li> <li>Agro-allied Industries and their Raw Materials</li> <li>Industries that Produce Farm Inputs</li> <li>Relationship between Agriculture and Industries</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Agro-allied Industries</strong></h2> The term <em>agro-allied industries</em> refers to industries that make use of agricultural produce or products as raw material to produce other finished products. It also refers to the produce that the farmers use as an input in the farm. The continuous existence of these industries is made possible through the raw material derived from agriculture. These industries help to; <ol> <li>provide market for agricultural products;</li> <li>provide employment opportunities;</li> <li>generate income for the government;</li> <li>influence or enhance development of rural areas;</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Agro-allied Industries and their Raw Materials</strong></h2> The following industries make use of agricultural produce or products as raw materials:

Environmental Factors Affecting Agricultural Production

<h1><strong>ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Introduction</li> <li>Climate Factors</li> <li>Biotic Factors</li> <li>Edaphic Factors</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Introduction</strong></h2> Agricultural activities such as crop and livestock production are affected by several environmental factors. These environmental factors determine and influence the distribution of crops and livestock as well as the performance and productivity of crops and livestock.   <h2><strong>Climatic Factors </strong></h2> Climate can be defines as the average weather condition of a place measured over a long period of time (over 35 yrs). Elements of climate include temperature, sunlight, wind, rainfall, relative humidity, pressure, radiant energy and cloud cover. <h3><strong>Temperature </strong></h3> This is the degree of hotness or coldness of a place at a given time. The effects on plants and animals include; <ol> <li>It is essential for germination.</li> <li>It is essential for growth of plants.</li> <li>It is necessary for photosynthesis.</li> <li>It affects distribution of crops and animals.</li> <li>It affects maturity of crops i.e; ripening of fruits.</li> <li>It also determines the rate of evapo-transpiration.</li> </ol> <h3><strong>Sunlight</strong></h3> Plants need sunlight to grow. The effects of sunlight on plants include the following:

Rock Formation

<h1><strong>ROCK FORMATION</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Rock</li> <li>The Process of Rock Formation</li> <li>Rock Minerals</li> <li>Types of Rock</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Rock </strong></h2> Rock is defined as any mineral material of the earth. Rock can also be defined as the aggregate of minerals made up of hard and soft materials like stone, sand, etc. Rock constitutes a significant part of the earth's crust. The earth's crust consists of rocks which are the combination of different mineral elements such as silica which contains silicon and oxygen. Rocks are aggregates (mixtures) of minerals.   <h2><strong>The Process of Rock Formation </strong></h2> Rocks are formed as a result of volcanic eruptions from earth’s crust. During the volcanic eruption the molten material or magma may remain within or escape to the surface . The magma or lava subsequently cools and solidifies to form glassy crystalline textured mass. In Nigeria rocks are found in Benue, Bauchi, Zaria, Plateau, Ilorin, Ondo, Ado-Ekiti, Abakiliki and Ogoja in Cross River State, etc. Some of the magma may cool before reaching the surface of the earth thus forming plutonic rocks (intrusive rocks) while some may reach the surface to form volcanic rocks (extrusive rocks) Examples of plutonic (intrusive) rocks are granite, diorite, gabbro, etc. Examples of volcanic (extrusive) rocks are basalt, andesite, obsidian, pumice, rhyolite, scoria and tuff. Rapid cooling gives rise to fine grained rocks,while slow cooling gives rise to larger grained rocks.   <h2><strong>Rock Minerals</strong></h2> Rock contains primary and secondary minerals, namely;

Soil Formation and Profile Development

<h1><strong>SOIL FORMATION AND PROFILE DEVELOPMENT</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Introduction</li> <li>Factors of Soil Formation</li> <li>Processes of Soil Formation</li> <li>Soil Profile Development</li> <li>Importance of Soil Profile<u></u></li> </ol> <strong> </strong> <h2><strong>Introduction</strong></h2> The soil is a very important factor for agricultural activity and the survival of man. Soil is the loose weathered material covering the surface of the earth, which supports life. It can also be defined as the outermost part of the earth that is formed from the mixture of minerals and decaying organic matter which extends from the surface down to the limit of biological forces.   <h2><strong>Factors of Soil Formation</strong></h2> The transformation of rocks into soil is referred to as soil formation. The first stage in the process of soil formation is the <strong>Weathering of rocks</strong> which involves the breaking of rocks into smaller particles and eventually into individual minerals that the rock is composed of. Weathering of rock can either be<strong> physica</strong>l such as through water, wind, Pressure, ice and temperature, or <strong>chemical </strong>which involves changes in the chemical composition of the rock.There are a number of factors that influence the rate, type and quality of soil formed in a location. There are five factors that determine or influence soil formation, namely: 1. Parent material <ul> <li>Climate</li> <li>Topography</li> <li>Living organisms</li> <li>Time</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Parent Material</strong></h3> The type of materials, that is structure, texture, and mineral composition present in the parent rock will also determine the type of soil formed. Parent materials are important in the following ways:

Types, Composition and Properties of Soil

<h1>TYPES, COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SOIL</h1> CONTENT   <h2>Meaning of Soil<strong> </strong></h2> Soil is the loose weathered material covering the earth surface which supports the growth of plants and sustains human and animal life. Soil consists of mineral materials e.g. sand, clay, silt and gravel, organic materials which are made of plants and animals, H<sub>2</sub>O (water), air and microbes. <h2>Types of Soil</h2> There are three types of soil formed as a result of the breakdown of rocks that is weathering. They are as follows: 1. <strong>Clay Soil</strong> This is a type of soil that has clay constituting the major proportion about 40% and above while the other part contains silt and sand. Types of crops that can grow on clay soil: rice, sugarcane, etc. It possesses the following characteristics.  

Simple Farm Tools

<h1>SIMPLE FARM TOOLS, USES AND MAINTENANCE</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Simple Farm Tools</li> <li>Types of Farm Tools</li> <li>Identification and Description of Each of the Farm Tools</li> <li>Identification of Various Accessory Tools and their Uses</li> <li>General Maintenance of Simple Farm Tools</li> </ol>     <h2>Meaning of Simple Farm Tools</h2> Simple farm tools are simple, handy tools made up of metals and wooden handles where applicable and used mainly by peasant farmers. They are designed to help the hands to apply force in farm operations. They make the work easier, faster and safer. <h2>Types of Farm Tools</h2> These tools can be classified into the following: <ul> <li>Farm and horticultural tools</li> <li>Workshop or accessory tools.</li> </ul>   <h3>Farm and Horticultural Tools</h3> These are simple tools used for cultivation of arable crops, fruit, vegetable and flowers. Example include cutlasses, hoes, rakes, hand forks, garden fork , shears, pick axe, spades, hand trowel, shovel, secateurs, watering can, harvesting sickle, head pan, wheel barrow, axe, pruning saw, budding knife, budizzor castrator, etc. <h3>Workshop or Accessory Tools</h3> These are tools used in workshop to repair or maintain farm implement and farm machines. They include hammer, spanner, screw driver, pliers, nut and bolt, chisel, hack saw, file, punches etc. EVALUATION <ol> <li>Differentiate between farm tools and accessory tools. Give five examples of each.</li> </ol>   <h2>Identification and Description of Each of the Farm Tools</h2>

Meaning, Branches and Importance of Agriculture

<h1><strong>MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Agriculture</li> <li>Definition of Agriculture</li> <li>Branches of Agriculture</li> <li>Importance of Agriculture<strong> </strong></li> </ol> <strong> </strong> <h2><strong>Meaning Of Agriculture</strong></h2> Agricultural science is a subject that deals with the planting of crops, rearing of animals as well as the provision of raw materials for industries. Agriculture is derived from two Latin words ‘<em>ager</em>’ (field) and ‘<i>cultūra</i>’ (cultivation or growing). Literally it means field cultivation. Agriculture is as old as the existence of man. It is regarded as the mother of all other occupations. It is the live-blood of the nation’s economy   <h2><strong>Definition of Agriculture </strong></h2> Agriculture can therefore be defined as the act and science of cultivating the soil for the production of crops and livestock management to the processing, packaging, distribution and marketing of plants and animals products for man’s use. Simply put, <strong>agriculture </strong>is the art and science that deals with the cultivation of crops and the rearing of animals for man’s use. Agriculture is defined as the production of crops and the rearing of animals for man’s use. It involves the tilling of the soil, cultivation of crops, rearing of animals for numerous purposes as well as for food .   <h2><strong>Branches of Agriculture </strong></h2> The scope and branches (areas of specialization) of agriculture include the following:

Farm Machinery and Implements

FARM MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS CONTENT <ol> <li>Farm machinery- Tractor, Bulldozer, Sheller, Dryers, Incubators.</li> <li>Tractor- coupled implements: Plough, Harrow, Ridgers, Planters, Harvesters, Sprayer.</li> </ol>   Definition of Farm Machinery Farm machinery refers to complex machine and implement used for carrying out farming operations. Examples include: tractors, bulldozers, shellers, driers, and incubators. The most important implement or machines in the farm, which is used for operating many farm implements is the <em>tractor.</em>   Classification of Farm Machines Farm machines and implements can be classified into three groups based on the source and generation of power as follows: (i) Primary Machines: These are the machines that can supply power to other machines and implement for their farming operations. An example is the tractor. (ii) Secondary Machines: These are tractors coupled or mounted machinery or implement used for different operations. Examples are Ploughs, harrows, ridgers, planters, harvesters, and sprayers. (iii) Intermediate Machines: These are powered by a tractor, electricity, or an electric generating set. Examples include grinding machines, incubators.   Examples of Farm Machinery Examples of this farm machinery are: 1. Tractor It is a powerful multi-purpose farm machine capable of using its power to perform various farm operations. It has internal combustion engine with either two or four strokes. It transmits power through the power take-off (PTO) shaft, or by means of a moving belt connecting the tractor to another machine. A draw bar attached to the tractor is used in coupling other farm implement to it. Tractors are of different types, namely:

Meaning and Differences between Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture

<h1><strong>SUBSISTENCE AND COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture</li> <li>Characteristics of Subsistence Agriculture</li> <li>Characteristics of Commercial Agriculture</li> <li>Differences between Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture</li> <li>Problems of Subsistence Farming</li> <li>Problems of Commercial Agriculture</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture </strong></h2> Basically, agriculture is of two types. All farmers are not the same. Some are rich while others are poor; some have large areas of land while others have very limited land space. The differences among all farmers help to categorize agriculture into two major types, namely subsistence and commercial agriculture. <h3><strong>Subsistence Agriculture (Subsistence Farming) </strong></h3> Subsistence farming is the type of agriculture whereby a farmer cultivates the soil and rears animals in order to produce food enough to feed himself and his family, with little or none left for to be sold. <h3><strong>Commercial Agriculture (Commercial Farming) </strong></h3> This is the type of farming which involves the production of cash crops and animals in large quantity. Food are produced mainly for sale with a motive to make maximum profit. Commercial agriculture is therefore a profit-oriented venture/enterprise. <h2></h2> <h2><strong>Characteristics of Subsistence Agriculture</strong></h2> The following are the characteristic features of subsistence agriculture:

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