Land and its Uses

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<h1><strong>LAND AND ITS USES</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Land</li> <li>Characteristics of Land</li> <li>Classification of Land</li> <li>Factors Affecting Land Availability and Uses</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Land </strong></h2> Land can be defined as the solid part of the earth’s surface which comprise of water, air , soil, rocks, minerals, natural vegetation and animals and which is suitable for agricultural production. It can also be defined as the uppermost layer of the earth's crust on which agricultural and non-agricultural activities are carried out.   <h2><strong>Characteristics of Land</strong></h2> The following are the characteristics of land: <ol> <li>Land is a free gift of nature</li> <li>it is immobile</li> <li>limited in supply</li> <li>It is a factor of agricultural production.</li> <li>Land can appreciate and depreciate over time</li> <li>It is heterogeneous in quality. i.e. it differs in one place to the another in area of the topography,texture,structure,fertility etc.</li> <li>The reward for land is rent.</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Classification of Land</strong></h2> <h3><strong>Classification of Land Based on Use</strong></h3> Land can be classified based on the uses they are put into. Thus we have: <h4><strong>Agricultural Land </strong></h4> This include land for; <ul> <li>Crop production</li> <li>Livestock production and fisheries</li> <li>Forestry</li> <li>Wildlife conservation</li> </ul> <h5><strong>Uses of Land for Agricultural Production</strong></h5> <h6>(i) <strong>Production of Crops </strong></h6> Land is used for producing both food crops like yam, maize, rice, cassava, cowpea etcand cash crops like cocoa, rubber, oil palm, cotton used for these activities is usually fertile <strong>Importance or Merits of Production of Crops </strong> The importance of crops include;

Factors Affecting Land Availability for Agricultural Purposes

<h2>FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY FOR AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES</h2> CONTENT <ol> <li>Factors Affecting Land Availability and Uses</li> </ol> <br> <h2><strong>Factors Affecting Land Availability and Uses</strong></h2> Many factor affect land availability and uses in Nigeria. Some of these are; <ol> <li>Land tenure system</li> <li>Population pressure</li> <li>The size of useful land in the country</li> <li>Climatic factors</li> <li>Soil factors</li> <li>Cultivation practices</li> <li>Cultural practices</li> <li>Topography</li> <li>Government policy</li> <li>Religious beliefs</li> <li>Environmental pollution</li> </ol>   <h3>(i)<strong> Land tenure system</strong></h3> Land tenure is the system of land ownership including the rights and obligations governing its acquisition and disposal. The prevailing system of land ownership in Nigeria does not encourage prospective farmers to acquire large hectares of land because the actual owners feel that their young ones are being robbed o f their inheritance.In Nigeria, land is mostly acquired through inheritance and shared among the beneficiaries ,due to fragmentation of land it becomes difficult to carryout large scale farming. Similarly communal land tenure does not make land available for agriculture too. Land is jointly owned by community. At times, government holds such land in trust for the community and later releases such land for building industrial layout ,thus making lands unavailable for agricultural activities. <h3>(ii)<strong> Population Pressure </strong></h3>

Husbandry of Selected Crops (continued)

<h1>HUSBANDRY OF SELECTED CROPS</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Vegetables - Tomato</li> <li>Beverages - Cocoa</li> <li>Oil - Oil Palm</li> </ol>   <h2>Tomato: <em>Lycopersicon esculentum</em></h2> <h3>Description of Tomato</h3> This is an annual vegetable crop grown for its fruits. The plant has a weak hairy and triangular stem which bears side branches. It has compound leaves, borne alternately on the stem and branches. Tomato bears yellow flowers; the fruit are green and turn red, pink or yellow when ripe. The fruit can be eaten raw/ cooked, used for soup or stew preparation, or in preparing vegetable salad and other food. <h3>Varieties of Tomato</h3> Cultivated varieties of tomato are Roma, Bonny best, Hot set, Ife plum, Romita, money-maker, pork, and local cultivars. <h3>Land Preparation for Tomato Cultivation</h3> Land clearing is done manually with cutlass, ridges is made with hoe, or can be prepared by ploughing, harrowing and ridging. <h3>Method of Propagation</h3> Propagation is by seed planted either directly or first in nursery and later transfer to the field. The planting could be by drilling or broadcasting. <h3>Soil Requirement</h3> It does best in a rich drained loamy soil. <h3>Climate</h3> Tomato is a warm season crop and does best under dry condition. Annual rainfall is 750mm. Temperature is between 20ºC to 25ºC. <h3>Planting Date</h3> Early September to October <h3>Seed Rate</h3> 5-10kg of seeds/ha <h3>Nursery Practices</h3> It is done on ground, beds or seed boxes. Seeds are sown in drill 5cm apart and 2.5cm deep Shading, mulching, weeding and watering are done. Nursery last for 3 weeks when the plants are at three leaved stage <h3>Spacing</h3> <ul> <li>60cm × 60cm without staking</li> <li>50cm × 30cm with staking</li> </ul> <h3>Transplanting</h3> Transplanting is done after the seedlings have reached about 15-20cm tall. This is about 25-30days. The plants should have attained up to 4-5 leaves stage before transplanting to the field. Planting in the field is 45-60cm between rows and 30-45cm between plants. Transplanting should done in the evening or during cool weather together with the ‘ball of earth’ to ensure survival of the seedlings. <h3>Cultural Practices</h3> <ol> <li>Weeding</li> <li>Watering (this should be done immediately after transplanting morning and evening)</li> <li>Fertilizer application: NPK 15:15:15 and organic manure are necessary</li> <li>Staking: this is to enable plants stand erect and prevent lodging. It also allows for good fruiting and keep fruit from disease attack arising from contact with soil.</li> </ol> <h3>Harvesting, Processing and Storage</h3> Tomato matures between 2-4 months after planting (from transplanting). Harvesting is done by hand picking and it starts as from two months. For a short period, tomato can be stored in a refrigerator or spread on the floor in an airy room. For a long term storage, tomatoes are turned into paste and canned <h3>Pests of Tomato</h3>

Pasture and Forage Crops

<h1>PASTURE AND FORAGE CROPS</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Pasture and Forage Crops</li> <li>Uses of Forage/Pasture Crops</li> <li>Types of Pasture</li> <li>Common Grasses and Legumes</li> <li>Description of Grasses and Legumes</li> <li>Factors Affecting the Distribution and Productivity of Pasture</li> <li>Establishment and Management of Pasture</li> <li>Determination of Plant Population</li> </ol>   <h2>Meaning of Pasture and Forage Crops</h2> A pasture is an area of land on which grasses and legumes (forages) grow for animals to graze. Forage crops are plants cultivated for their vegetative portions in a pasture and are used either in fresh or preserved for feeding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goat. They may be harvested and fed to the animals in their shed (soiling/zero grazing) or animals are allowed to graze directly on the field. <img class="size-full wp-image-52037 aligncenter" src="" alt="Pasture and forage crops" width="498" height="194" />   <h2>Uses of Forage/Pasture Crops</h2> Forage and pasture crops are used for the following: <ol> <li>Forages account for a major source of food for ruminant animals</li> <li>They serve as cover crops to conserve soil moisture and prevent soil erosion.</li> <li>They could be used as green manure e.g forage legumes</li> <li>They can be used for roofing farm stead e.g grasses</li> <li>They can also be used as bedding materials for animals</li> <li>They can fix atmospheric nitrogen into the soil</li> <li>Forage legumes increase proteins content of the pasture, add to palatability as well as increasing the nitrogen content of the soil.</li> <li>If properly managed and planned, it could be a source of balanced diet.</li> </ol> EVALUATION <ol> <li>What do you understand by the term pasture?</li> <li>State five importances of forages in livestock production.</li> </ol>   <h2>Types of Pasture</h2> There are two main types of pasture: the natural and artificial pastures: 1. <strong>The Natural Pasture</strong>: The Natural Pasture otherwise known as range land is an extensive grassland containing forage grasses and legumes, straws and other wildlife. An example of Natural Pasture is Savanna areas. They are not planted by man. <h3>Characteristics of Natural Pasture</h3>

Agro-Allied Industries and Relationship between Agriculture and Industry

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<h1><strong>AGRO-ALLIED INDUSTRIES AND RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Agro-allied Industries</li> <li>Agro-allied Industries and their Raw Materials</li> <li>Industries that Produce Farm Inputs</li> <li>Relationship between Agriculture and Industries</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Agro-allied Industries</strong></h2> The term <em>agro-allied industries</em> refers to industries that make use of agricultural produce or products as raw material to produce other finished products. It also refers to the produce that the farmers use as an input in the farm. The continuous existence of these industries is made possible through the raw material derived from agriculture. These industries help to; <ol> <li>provide market for agricultural products;</li> <li>provide employment opportunities;</li> <li>generate income for the government;</li> <li>influence or enhance development of rural areas;</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Agro-allied Industries and their Raw Materials</strong></h2> The following industries make use of agricultural produce or products as raw materials:

Environmental Factors Affecting Agricultural Production

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<h1><strong>ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Introduction</li> <li>Climate Factors</li> <li>Biotic Factors</li> <li>Edaphic Factors</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Introduction</strong></h2> Agricultural activities such as crop and livestock production are affected by several environmental factors. These environmental factors determine and influence the distribution of crops and livestock as well as the performance and productivity of crops and livestock.   <h2><strong>Climatic Factors </strong></h2> Climate can be defines as the average weather condition of a place measured over a long period of time (over 35 yrs). Elements of climate include temperature, sunlight, wind, rainfall, relative humidity, pressure, radiant energy and cloud cover. <h3><strong>Temperature </strong></h3> This is the degree of hotness or coldness of a place at a given time. The effects on plants and animals include; <ol> <li>It is essential for germination.</li> <li>It is essential for growth of plants.</li> <li>It is necessary for photosynthesis.</li> <li>It affects distribution of crops and animals.</li> <li>It affects maturity of crops i.e; ripening of fruits.</li> <li>It also determines the rate of evapo-transpiration.</li> </ol> <h3><strong>Sunlight</strong></h3> Plants need sunlight to grow. The effects of sunlight on plants include the following:

Rock Formation

<h1><strong>ROCK FORMATION</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Rock</li> <li>The Process of Rock Formation</li> <li>Rock Minerals</li> <li>Types of Rock</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Rock </strong></h2> Rock is defined as any mineral material of the earth. Rock can also be defined as the aggregate of minerals made up of hard and soft materials like stone, sand, etc. Rock constitutes a significant part of the earth's crust. The earth's crust consists of rocks which are the combination of different mineral elements such as silica which contains silicon and oxygen. Rocks are aggregates (mixtures) of minerals.   <h2><strong>The Process of Rock Formation </strong></h2> Rocks are formed as a result of volcanic eruptions from earth’s crust. During the volcanic eruption the molten material or magma may remain within or escape to the surface . The magma or lava subsequently cools and solidifies to form glassy crystalline textured mass. In Nigeria rocks are found in Benue, Bauchi, Zaria, Plateau, Ilorin, Ondo, Ado-Ekiti, Abakiliki and Ogoja in Cross River State, etc. Some of the magma may cool before reaching the surface of the earth thus forming plutonic rocks (intrusive rocks) while some may reach the surface to form volcanic rocks (extrusive rocks) Examples of plutonic (intrusive) rocks are granite, diorite, gabbro, etc. Examples of volcanic (extrusive) rocks are basalt, andesite, obsidian, pumice, rhyolite, scoria and tuff. Rapid cooling gives rise to fine grained rocks,while slow cooling gives rise to larger grained rocks.   <h2><strong>Rock Minerals</strong></h2> Rock contains primary and secondary minerals, namely;

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