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Complexity: Standard

CONTENT: Structure of fruits Types of fruits Dispersal of fruits Agents of dispersal   MEANING OF FRUIT Fruit is the structure that developed from the matured ovary after fertilization which…

Variation and Evolution

Complexity: Standard

CONTENT: Morphological variations Physiological variation Application of variation   INTRODUCTION Evolution is the cumulative changes in the characteristics of population or organisms occurring in the course of successive generations related…

Biology of Heredity: Genetics

Complexity: Standard

CONTENT: Transmission and expression of characters in organisms Chromosomes the basis of heredity. Probability in genetics. Applications of principles of heredity Explanation on cross and self fertilization   INTRODUCTION TO…


Complexity: Standard

CONTENT: Progressive change in structure and anatomy of organisms. Structural adaptation: Adaptive colouration. Structural adaptation: For obtaining food. Different castes of termites. Different castes of bees.   PROGRESSIVE CHANGE IN…

Balance in Nature

Complexity: Standard

CONTENT: Factors affecting a population Dynamic population Family planning   FACTORS AFFECTING A POPULATION In ecology, the interaction between plant and animals in an environment produces a stable and a…

Reproductive Systems and Reproduction in Humans

Complexity: Standard

CONTENTS A. Reproductive system in males and female Function of various parts Structure of a male sperm and ovum B. Fertilization Fusion of gametes Implantation C. Development of embryo Selective…

Development of New Seeds

Complexity: Standard

CONTENT: Progress of development of zygote in the flowering plant Germination of seeds   PROGRESS OF DEVELOPMENT OF ZYGOTE IN THE FLOWERING PLANT                                               Meaning of seed Seeds are plant parts…

Evolution: Theories of Evolution; Evidence of Evolution

Complexity: Standard

CONTENT: Theories of Evolution. The theories of evolution according to Charles Darwin, Jean Baptist de Lamark Evidence of evolution. Forces responsible for evolution: mutation, gene flow, genetic drift.   INTRODUCTION…

Sense Organs: Organ of Smell

Complexity: Standard

SENSE ORGAN – THE NOSE THE ORGAN OF SMELL The nose (olfactory organ) is the organ of smell. It consists of groups of chemo receptors found in the epithelial lining…

Sense Organs: Organ of Taste

Complexity: Standard

THE ORGAN OF TASTE In mammals the organ of taste is the tongue. Taste chemoreceptors are grouped on the upper surface of the tongue, on the soft palate and in…

Sense Organs: Organ of Touch

Complexity: Standard

THE SKIN The sensations of touch, pressure, pain, cold and heat are detected by the mammalian skin which is richly supplied with sensory receptors. The sensory receptors in the skin…

Ecology of Population I

Complexity: Standard

CONTENT: 1. Succession (i) Meaning of succession (ii) Structural changes in species composition, variety and increase in number. (iii) Primary succession (a) Aquatic and (b) Terrestrial habitat (iv) Secondary succession-Meaning…

Ecology of Population II

Complexity: Standard

CONTENT: 1. Relationship between succession and competition. 2. Factors that may cause overcrowding. 3. Measures adapted by nature to avoid overcrowding e.g. (i) Dispersal of seeds and fruits (ii) Migration…

Sense Organs: Organ of Sight

Complexity: Standard

SENSE ORGANS Information about the mechanical, thermal, chemical and electromagnetic changes in the internal and external environment are perceived by sensory receptors in our bodies. These process the information and…

Reproductive Behaviours in Animals

Complexity: Standard

CONTENT: Paring Territoriality Display of body colours Seasonal migration   COURTSHIP BEHAVIOURS IN ANIMALS Courtship is a collection of ritualized behaviours unique to each species that lead up to and…

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