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Understanding Technology: Introduction to Technology

Complexity: Standard



  1. Introduction to Technology
  2. Technology-related Professions
  3. Technology Occupations/Careers
  4. Types of Technology
  5. Importance of Technology
  6. Technological Literacy


Introduction to Technology

Technology is a term derived from the Greek words ‘techne’ and ‘logia’ meaning the study of craft or art. Technology is basically a systematic way of doing things or solving problems for the good of mankind. Technology is also a human activity directed at designing and making products like machines, computers, textiles, household devices and others, which make human living comfortable.

Technology is the processes (method) and products (materials) that make life easy and stress free. It can also be defined as cultural traditions developed in human communities for developing the physical and biological environment. Technology is also a new knowledge, idea, skill, procedure, or technique for doing or using things which may result into new things being produced. Technological development could be traced in the following areas:

  1. Food
  2. Clothing
  3. Shelter
  4. Communication
  5. Transportation, and
  6. Manufacturing.


Technology-related Professions

Technology is in the area of producing things, and providing services or using things in given ways. Such areas of human endeavor include engineering and construction, medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, business and commerce.


Technology Occupations/Careers

S/n Field Occupation
1 Engineering (i)
Mechanical Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Electronic Engineering
Computer Engineering
Telecommunication Engineering
Agricultural Engineering
Civil Engineering
Building Engineering
Chemical Engineering
Aeronautic Engineering
2 Architecture (i) Architecture
3 Medicine (i)
General Practice
Dental medicine
Gynecology and obstetrics
Vetenary medicine
4 Agriculture (i)
Animal production
Crop production
5 Business (i)
6 Information Communication
Technology (ICT)
(i) Information Management System

Safety Guidelines for Pedestrians and Cyclists

Complexity: Standard



  1. Introduction to Safety Guidelines
  2. Safety Guidelines for Pedestrians
  3. Safety Guidelines for Cyclists


Introduction to Safety Guidelines

Safety means protection from danger or injury. Safety guidelines are the rules to be followed in order to reduce or eliminate danger or injury. The safety of road users such as pedestrians, cyclists and motorists is highly important given the number of road accidents on roads and highways. Great importance also needs to be placed on the safety of students and their instructors in workshops in order to prevent accidents.

Accidents are unpleasant events. They happen unexpectedly and cause injury or damage. We must plan against them by taking safety measures.


Safety Guidelines for Pedestrians

The following safety guidelines for pedestrians should be observed:

1. Always walk on the left side of the road facing oncoming traffic.

2. Where sidewalks are provided, use them rather than walking on the tarred road.

3. Wear reflective or bright coloured clothes at night and carry a torch.

4. When crossing the road, look left, right and left again before crossing.

5. Walk quickly when crossing.

6. Pedestrians should attempt to cross the road only at a safe place such as the:

(a) Zebra crossing

(b) Pedestrians overhead bridge

Safety Guidelines for Motorists

Complexity: Standard



  1. Meaning of Safety Guidelines for Motorists
  2. Safety Guidelines for Motorists


Meaning of Safety Guidelines for Motorists

Motorists are road users who drive cars, buses, trucks and lorries. Rules meant to help people avoid danger or injury are called safety guidelines. Safety guidelines for motorists are therefore rules and regulations made to ensure that motorists drive safely and responsibly in order to guarantee the safety of the motorists and other road users.


Safety Guidelines for Motorists

The following are the safety guidelines for motorists:

  1. Use of seat belts. The use of seat belts help to prevent serious injuries in the event of an accident. Seat belts hold the driver and passengers tightly onto their seats.
  2. Obeying all traffic rules.

Workshop Safety; Workshop Safety Devices

Complexity: Standard



  1. Introduction to Workshop Safety
  2. Meaning of Workshop Accident
  3. Causes of Workshop Accident
  4. Workshop Safety Rules
  5. Types of Accidents in the Workshop
  6. Workshop Safety Devices


Introduction to Workshop Safety

Safety is freedom from danger. It is protection from risk of harm or injury. It is also protection against damage to machines, tools as well as the prevention or removal of factors that can lead to accident. Safety must be ensured in the workshop.

A workshop is a place where technical and engineering works are carried out.

Workshop safety is protection from risk of harm or injury to humans or damage to machines and tools in the workshop.


Meaning of Workshop Accident

An accident is an unexpected event resulting in injury, illness or death as well as damage to property. Accident occurs as a result of hazards. Hazard is both an unsafe condition and unsafe act. It makes an accident to occur. Hazard is, therefore, any activity, situation or substance that causes harm or injury to someone in a workshop while he/she is working.


Causes of Workshop Accident

The basic causes of accidents are unsafe conditions of machinery, equipment, or surroundings, and the unsafe actions of persons that are caused by ignorance or neglect of safety principles.

The following are the causes of workshop accidents:

  1. Lack of safety devices.
  2. Failure to use safety devices provided.
  3. Failure to follow laid-down methods for handling tools, equipment and machines.

Workshop Safety Rules and Regulations

Complexity: Standard



  1. Safety Precautions or Attitudes in the Workshop
  2. General Safety Precautions in Workshops
  3. Accident Prevention Techniques
  4. Types of Fire
  5. Safety Precautions in Fire Accidents


Safety Precautions or Attitudes in the Workshop

The following are the safety precautions or attitudes in the workshop:

1. Obedience: Pupils must obey the instructions of their teachers at all times

2. Humility: Show respect to everybody and when you are in doubt about anything, ask question.

3. Fiddling: Never play with any tool, equipment and machine in the workshop, such as ‘’ON/OFF’’ switch.

4. Horseplay: Do not run around in the workshop. Always, be patient and never rush.

5. Negligence: Report any fault or injury to your teacher, no matter how small.

General Safety Precautions in Workshops

Properties of Materials: Properties of Wood

Complexity: Standard



  1. Definition of Materials
  2. The Definition of Wood
  3. Identification of Wood
  4. Classification and Properties of Wood
  5. Differences in the Properties of Hardwood and Softwood
  6. Properties of Materials and Identification of Wood, Timber, Structure of Wood
  7. The Growth of Timber and Wood Structure
  8. Five Main Parts Cross Section, Classes and Properties


Definition of Materials

Materials are substances from which other things can be made. Basically, they can be classified into two: metallic and non-metallic. Furthermore, the metallic ones can be subdivided into ferrous and non-ferrous metals, while the non-metallic ones can be divided into natural and synthetic materials.

Properties of materials


The Definition of Wood

One of the materials that is supplied by nature is wood. Wood is commonly used in some engineering manufacture because it is light, strong and can be worked upon easily.

Wood is a material obtained from trees. It is made up of cellulose and lignin each consisting of 60% and 28% respectively.


Identification of Wood

Generally, wood has very good combination of colours to give it high decorative value. This makes it possible to identify some woods by their colour. Examples are:

S/n Trees Colour Identification
1 Iroko Yellowish brown      
2 Mahogany Reddish brown      
3 Afara Pale-colour      
4 Teak Red-brown      
5 Yew Dark-green      
6 Cotton-wood Grayish white to light grayish brown
7 Hickory Reddish brown      

Properties of Ceramics; Properties of Glass

Complexity: Standard



Properties of Ceramics

  1. Definition of Ceramics
  2. Classification of Ceramic Materials
  3. Properties of Ceramics

Properties of Glass

  1. Definition of Glass
  2. Properties of Glass
  3. Uses of Glass


Properties of Ceramics

Definition of Ceramics

Clay exists naturally in many parts of the world. When it is wet, it can easily be molded into different shapes and sizes. We use clay to mould various objects like storage pots, cooking pots and dishes.

We use mud to construct support for cooking pots, to build houses and also to make bricks for building houses. We make cement blocks that we use for building houses by mixing sand and cement to get typical shape. All the above solid objects made from clay, mud or cement are called ceramics.

Ceramics break easily when dropped. We say they are brittle; this differentiates ceramics from metals, plastics, wood and rubber. Ceramics are less dense than most metals. They have high melting points.

They are a very large group and have very wide uses such as:

  1. Refractory ceramics (high temperature bricks) for furnaces and flue linings.
  2. Tiles, such as roof tiles, glazed and unglazed floor and wall tiles, including white tiles.
  3. Sanitary fittings of all kinds usually known as white ware
  4. Common brick to high grade engineering brick used for the construction of machinery bases. Basically, they are of:

(a) Structural clay products, including common bricks and sewer bricks. These products are dried and fired for strength after being made from a mixture of clay and shale.

Building Materials

Complexity: Standard



  1. Definition of Building
  2. Common Building Materials
  3. Identification of Buildings by Materials
  4. Uses of Building Materials
  5. Uses of Buildings
  6. Types of Buildings


Definition of Building

A building is a structure which is designed by the architects or draughtsman and built for the purpose of providing shelter for human beings. Building materials are the materials used to construct buildings and other structures.


Common Building Materials

The following are the common building materials:

(i) Cement (ii) Sand (iii) Gravel (iv) Metal (v) Plastics (vi) Wood (vii) Glass (viii) Leaves (ix) Ceramics (x) Grass, etc.

Building materials

Building Materials


Identification of Buildings by Materials

Buildings are identified by the types of materials with which they are erected. They are:

  1. Mud Buildings: These are erected with loamy or clayed soil which has been properly treated to plastic nature.
  2. Brick Building: Bricks are molded from dried mortar (a mixture of cement, sand and lime and at times clay burnt in a kiln. There two types of Brick Building:

(i) The Sun dried bricks (ii) The fire burnt bricks (Red bricks)

JSS1 Basic Technology First Term Examination (Mock)

Complexity: Standard

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY Basic Technology Upper Basic 7 Third Term Examination (Mock) Basic Technology Upper Basic 9 First Term Examination (Mock) Basic Technology Upper Basic 9 Second Term Examination…

Drawing Instruments and Materials

Complexity: Standard



  1. Definition of Technical Drawing
  2. Drawing Instrument and Materials


Definition of Technical Drawing

Technical drawing is a universal language used for communication among technical people. A good and accurate drawing can only be made through constant practice with the aid of drawing instruments and materials. Technical drawing can also be defined as a language of communication making use of lines, curves, symbols and conventions.


Drawing Instrument and Materials

Drawing instruments and materials for technical drawing are:

  1. Drawing board
  2. Tee square
  3. Sets squares
  4. Protractor

Uses of Drawing Instruments and Materials

Complexity: Standard



  1. Uses of Drawing Instruments and Materials


Uses of Drawing Instruments and Materials

  1. A drawing board is the wooden platform on which the drawing paper is placed before the drawing starts. The two main types are (a) full imperial size which is 812 × 585mm (b) half imperial (585 × 452mm) size.
  2. Tee square is used for drawing horizontal or parallel lines in conjunction with drawing board.
  3. Drawing pencils are of different grades used for general drawing, lettering or freehand sketching and technical or engineering drawing. We have B, 2B, 3B, 4B up to 8B and H, 2H, 3H, 4 H up to 8H pencils.

Basic Techniques of Handling and Caring for Drawing Instruments and Materials

Complexity: Standard



Basic Techniques of Handling;

  1. Drawing Board
  2. Tee-Square
  3. Set-Square, Scale Rules, Protractor and French Curves
  4. Pair of Compasses or Dividers
  5. Other Instruments



We need to take care of our drawing instruments in order to prolong their service life.

Basic Techniques of Handling Drawing Board

  1. Do not use pins for fastening your paper to the board, use tapes or clips.
  2. Do not use blade or knife to cut something on the surface of your drawing board.
  3. Always cover the surface with cardboard or thick paper.
  4. Keep the drawing board in a safe place when not in use.

Basic Techniques of Handling and Caring for Drawing Instruments and Materials - Drawing board

Basic Techniques of Handling Tee-Square

Basic Board Practice: Setting Drawing Paper on the Board; Sharpening Pencil to Conical Point and Knife Edge

Complexity: Standard



  1. Setting Drawing Paper on the Board
  2. Sharpening of Drawing Pencils to Conical Point and Knife Edge
  3. The Instruments Required for Good Board Practice


Setting Drawing Paper on the Board

Step 1:

The drawing board is conveniently placed on the table with the paper on the board, leaving equal size all rounds, with the Tee-square edge to the left hand side.

Step 2:

Place the tee-square on the paper and gently move or slide the tee-square to the top edge of the paper. Set the top edge of the paper parallel to the edge of the tee-square with the stock of the tee-square firmly against the edge of the drawing board on the left-hand side.

Step 3:

Hold the paper with four pieces of adhesive tape or two metal clips to hold the paper in position at four corners.

Step 4:

Gently slide the tee-square down without moving the paper.


Sharpening of Drawing Pencils to Conical Point and Knife Edge

Board Practice: Positioning and Drawing the Title Block; Freehand Writing of Letters and Numerals

Complexity: Standard



  1. Positioning and Drawing the Title Block.
  2. Freehand Writing of Letters and Numerals.


Positioning and Drawing the Title Block

Title Block

The title block gives necessary information about the drawing such as name of designer, school, class, date, scale etc. The title block is usually at the bottom right-hand corner of the drawing paper.

Board practice - Positioning and Drawing the Title Block


Writing (freehand) Legible Letters and Numerals

Lettering is the art of writing of letters (alphabets) and numbers (figures) in bold form or lower case form on drawing.

Freehand Sketching

Complexity: Standard



  1. Definition or Meaning of Freehand Sketching


Definition or Meaning of Freehand Sketching

Freehand sketching is one of the quickest methods by which the shape of an object can be communicated to others without using any drawing instrument except a pen or a pencil. Examples of free hand sketches are:

Basic Freehand Techniques of Drawing Circles, Irregular Shapes, etc.

Complexity: Standard



Basic Freehand Techniques of Drawing Circles, Irregular Shapes, etc.

  1. Sketching a Straight Line
  2. Sketching a Curve
  3. Sketching a Circle
  4. Sketching a Square Box
  5. Sketching an Irregular Edge


Techniques of Sketching

Sketching a Straight Line

A straight line is defined as the shortest distance between two points. We can use freehand to draw a fairly straight line by the following procedures.

  1. Put a dash or dot far enough to the right-hand side of the paper.
  2. Start to draw a line from the left-hand side to join the dash or dot with your eyes fixed on the point.

Sketching a Curve

To draw a curve by freehand, it will be necessary to plot some points not too far from each other at different levels, like this ——— with the points in position attempt to draw curves by joining the dashes or dots.

Sketching a Circle

To draw circles, the easiest way is to draw lines which are equal in diameter to the circle in different directions. Each line must be as faint and straight as possible, each crossing one another at a central point. Now, join the points by little curves from the top of each line. Try to draw other circles by means of joining two large curves having half the size as radius and full size in diameter.

Sketching a Square Box

JSS1 Basic Technology Second Term Examination (Mock)

Complexity: Standard

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING Basic Technology Upper Basic 9 Second Term Examination (Mock) Basic Technology Upper Basic 9 First Term Examination (Mock) Basic Technology Upper Basic 7 Third Term Examination…

Woodwork Hand Tools: Measuring Tools; Setting and Marking Out Tools

Complexity: Standard



  1. Classes of Wood Work Hand Tools
  2. Measuring and Marking Out Tools
  3. Setting and Marking Out Tools


Classes of Wood Work Hand Tools

There are six classes of wood work hand tools. They are:

  1. Measuring tools
  2. Marking out/setting out tools
  3. Work holding tools
  4. Boring tools
  5. Cutting and paring tools
  6. Driving tools.

The Work Bench

A very vital tool in the wood workshop upon which operations such as sawing, drilling, planning, chiseling and boring are all carried out.

Work bench fittings are:

  1. Bench Stop is a provision made to prevent the work piece from slipping off the top surface of the work bench during planning.
  2. Bench Hook is a device used to hold the job (or work piece) down during sawing or chiseling.
  3. Bench Vice is a device that has a torsion bar for opening the jaws to allow a work piece to be held firmly between them. Usually more than one of this is fixed on the bench.
  4. The Well is an important longitudinal hollow feature at the center of the work bench which serves as storage area for keeping bench tools during the process of work.Measuring and marking out tools - Work bench

Measuring Tools

Measurement is the first operation in woodwork. It is an activity that involves taking, checking and recording of distance between two points (or dimension) of object.

There are:

Driving and Boring Tools

Complexity: Standard



  1. Driving Tools
  2. Boring Tools


Driving Tools

Driving tools are used to fix nails and screws into wooden and metal materials. Nails are the iron material with a flat head, smooth stem and sharp end. Screws look like nails but they have turned or twisted stem. Screws are driven into wood with screwdrivers while nails are driven into wood and metals with the use of hammers. Hammers are driving tools that have two parts – a head, which is made of iron and a wooden handle. There are five types of hammers named according to the shape of the head. They are;

1. Ball peen hammer.

2. Straight peen hammer

3. Cross peen hammer

4. Planishing hammer

5. Blocking head hammer

6. Upholstery hammer

(i) Straight-peen hammer is used for riveting while other end is used for shaping sheet metals.

(ii) Ball-peen hammer is used for general purposes.

Holding Devices; Cutting and Pairing Tools

Complexity: Standard



  1. Holding Devices
  2. Cutting and Paring Tools


Holding Devices

Woodworking holding devices are the tools used to hold the work piece on the workbench. Woodworkers work on workbenches. It is on these benches that various woodwork constructions are carried out. The centre of the bench is usually lower than its two sides. This area is called a ‘well’ and its function is to accommodate the tools brought from the tool cupboard to the bench top during operations. The tools cannot fall or roll on to the floor or on anyone’s feet because this part is lower than other area of the bench.

The fittings are:

1. Bench Vice

It is also called fitter’s vice. It is used to clamp or to hold jobs when the following operations are to be carried out on the bench, filling, bending, tapping, cutting, assembling parts, etc.

Holding Devices; Cutting and Pairing Tools - Bench vice

Other types of vice are:

Hand Vice

It is used for holding work when performing operations such as drilling, riveting, etc.

Holding Devices; Cutting and Pairing Tools - Hand vice

Machine Vice

It is fixed to the table of any machine tool.

The Care of the Vice

  1. Always keep the vice clean.
  2. The thread or the screw inside the vice should be oiled regularly.
  3. Do not use the vice as an anvil for hammering a job
  4. Always use hand force only to tighten the vice for holding the work piece.

2. Bench Stop

Marking Out Tools, Measuring Tools and Gauge

Complexity: Standard



  1. Marking Out Tools
  2. Measuring Tools and Gauge


Marking Out Tools

These are hand tools used for marking out the required shapes of a particular metal from the sheet metal before cutting in the metal workshop. Examples are:

(i) Surface plate

This is used for checking the alignment and flatness of the object.

(ii) Surface table

This is used for marking out large objects, for checking accuracy, for height alignment and checking parallelism.

Marking Out Tools, Measuring Tools Driving Tools and Cutting Tools - Surface plate - Surface table

(iii) Scriber

This is used for marking out straight lines on metals in conjunction with other marking out tools.

(iv) Centre punch

This is used to locate the centre of a hole to be drilled.

Marking Out Tools, Measuring Tools Driving Tools and Cutting Tools - Surface plate - Scriber - Centre punch

(v) Dot punch

Driving Tools and Cutting Tools

Complexity: Standard



  1. Driving Tools
  2. Cutting Tools


Driving Tools

Definition of Driving Tools

Driving tools are tools used for pushing in nails, screws into position. Examples are:

1. Hammers

Hammers have two distinct parts, the handle and the head. While the handle can be made of wood or metallic material, the head is always made of high carbon steel. The hammer is classified according to the type of head, hence we have:

Ball peen, straight peen, cross peen and planishing hammer.

Driving tools - Hammers

2. Mallets

This is a soft hammer whose head is made of soft material like synthetic rubber to prevent the head from damaging the surface of the work piece.

Driving tools - mallets

3. Punches

These are used for producing holes on thin sheets of metal, to mark holes for drilling and to remove rivet. Examples are centre or dot punch, and pin punch for marking drill points.

Driving tools - Punches

Maintenance of Tools and Machines

Complexity: Standard



  1. Care of Files
  2. Care of Hacksaw
  3. Care of Boring Tools
  4. Concept of and Need for Maintenance
  5. Types of Maintenance


Care of Files

(i) A file cuts the metal during the forward stroke; therefore pressure on the file should be released during the return stroke.

(ii) A new file should be used for soft metals such as brass, zinc, or copper. It should not be used for filing welded joints or surface of casting.

(iii) A file must not be used without a handle because it is dangerous. Make sure the handle is firmly secured.

(iv) The file should be cleaned regularly with a wire brush or file card to remove iron filing embedded in the teeth of the file and enable the file to cut better.

Care of Hacksaw

(i) Ensure the jobs are rigidly clamped to the vice.

(ii) The blade should be fixed so that the teeth are pointing away from the handle.

(iii) Tension the blade by the tensioning wing-nut making sure that the tension is right. Incorrect tension will lead to breakage of the blade.

(iv) For solid copper or brass, use coarse blade about 14 to 18 teeth per 25mm for sheet metal and thin strip use teeth per 25mm.

(v) Use moderate speed in cutting, about 40 to 60 strokes per minute.

(vi) Use as much length of the blade as possible.

Care of Boring Tools

The Importance of Maintenance

Complexity: Standard



  1. Importance of Maintenance
  2. Need for Maintenance of Tools, Equipment and Machines


Importance of Maintenance

Maintenance is the work done to keep or restore equipment to an acceptable working standard at a minimum cost. To avoid breakdown, an organization or individual should formulate an appropriate maintenance policy or plan. Maintenance is important so as to save cost and time that may be required for the installation of new equipment to replace the damaged ones. It is also necessary to prevent disappointment and loss of precious opportunities.

Need for Maintenance of Tools, Equipment and Machines

We need to maintain our tools and machine for the following reasons:

JSS1 Basic Technology Third Term Examination (Mock)

Complexity: Standard

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY Basic Technology Upper Basic 7 Second Term Examination (Mock) Basic Technology Upper Basic 9 Second Term Examination (Mock) Basic Technology Upper Basic 9 First Term Examination…

Properties of Metals

Complexity: Standard



  1. The Definition of Metals
  2. Identification of Metals by Physical Properties
  3. Classification of Metals


The Definition of Metals

A metal is a material (a compound, element or alloy) that is hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and which is a good conductor of heat and electricity.

Identification of Metals by Physical Properties

Identification of metals can be defined as a method used to differentiate one particular type of metal from another and from other materials which are non-metals.

Metals can be identified through their properties, which include:

  1. Density: This is the weight of a metal and it varies from metal to metal. E.g. aluminum is light and lead is heavy in weight.
  2. Colour/Lustre: This is the appearance of a metal when the surface is polished. For example, when polished and examined under a microscope, copper presents a different appearance from polished mild steel.
  3. Fusibility: This is the property of a metal which makes it melt and join with other metals while in a liquid form.

Basic Emission Theory

Complexity: Standard



  1. Definition of Emission
  2. Electronic Emission
  3. Methods of Emission


Definition of Emission

Emission is the displacement or dislodgement of electron from a material with the intention of directing such electron to a predetermined position or object. The basic electronic emission occurs when heat, sunlight, electron collision, electromagnetic field and surface bombardment are used to release electron from the metal surface to the vacuum tube.

Electronic Emission

The electronic emission is the process of liberating or emitting free electrons from the metal surface to the vacuum tubes. A vacuum tube is an empty tube in which the air has been completely removed for the purpose of storing liquefied gas.

Methods of Emission

There are four principal methods of liberating electron from the surface of metal. They are

Basic Electronic Devices

Complexity: Standard



  1. Definition of Basic Electronic Devices
  2. Types of Basic Electronic Devices
  3. Uses of Basic Electronic Devices


Definition of Basic Electronic Devices

The basic electronic devices are the devices which emit and control the movement of electrons in a desirable manner used in generation of electronic appliances.

Types of Basic Electronic Devices

The following are the types of basic electronic devices:

1. Semi Conductors

Basic electronic devices - Semi conductors

2. Resistors

Basic electronic devices - Resistors

Basic Technology Scheme of Work for JSS1 First Term


JSS1 Basic Technology Scheme of Work for First Term WEEK(S) TOPIC(S) CONTENT 1 Understanding Technology: Introduction to Technology (i) Meaning and Definition of Technology (ii) Technology-related Professions and Careers (iii)…

Second Term Scheme of Work for JSS1 Basic Technology


JSS2 Agricultural Science Scheme of Work for First Term





Revision of last term’s work

  • Revision of work done in the previous term/session


Farm Structures and Buildings

  • (a) Description of Farm Structures and Buildings:

    (i) Farm Structures – barns, silos, rhombus, paddock, fish ponds, etc.

    (ii) Farm Buildings – poultry houses, pen, store, offices, utility building, security post, etc.


Farm Structures and Buildings


Crop Propagation and Cultural Practices


Classes and Uses of Crops


Classes and Uses of Crops


Classes and Uses of Crops


Classes and Uses of Crops


Classes and Uses of Crops


  • Revision of work done in First Term


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