Living Things

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<h1><strong>INTRODUCTION TO LIVING THINGS </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Living Things</li> <li>Characteristics of Living Things</li> <li>Classification of Living Things</li> <li>Photosynthesis</li> <li>Differences between Plants and Animals</li> <li>Similarities between Plants and Animals</li> <li>Uses of Plants and Animals</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Living Things</strong></h2> Living things are things that have life and can carry out all characteristics of life. <img class="size-full wp-image-32416 aligncenter" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/living-things.jpg" alt="Living Things" width="400" height="198" /> <h2><strong>Characteristics of Living Things</strong></h2> These are activities living things can perform such as: <strong>(MR NIGERCLAD)</strong> <ol> <li><strong>Movement</strong>: Movement is a change in position. Animals move from place to place. Plant only moves in stationary state towards light, water, etc.</li> <li><strong>Respiration</strong>: This is the taking in of oxygen to release energy as a result of breakdown of food in the body.</li>

Non-living Things: Matter

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<h1><strong>NON-LIVING THINGS - MATTER</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>The Meaning of Matter</li> <li>Identification of Matter</li> <li>States of Matter</li> <li>Change of State of Matter</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Matter</strong></h2> Matter is anything in nature that has mass and occupies space. Stone, paper, plant, animal, air, water, rubber etc. are made up of matter. Matter is made up of small particles called atoms. <p style="text-align: center;"><img class="size-full wp-image-32420 aligncenter" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/non-living-things-matter.jpg" alt="Non living things - Matter" width="448" height="201" /><strong>Water Droplets</strong></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="color: #008000;">Water droplets are made of water molecules that bond together.</span></p> <h2><strong>Identification of Matter</strong></h2> Matter is classified into solid, liquid, and gas. All living and non-living things are made up of matter. It means that everything that you can see, touch, smell, breathe or eat is made up of matter. Matter can be classified as living and non-living matter. Can you mention some living and non-living matter around you? <h2><strong>States of Matter </strong></h2> The three states of matter are Solid, Liquid and Gas. Hence, we have solid state, liquid state and gaseous state. Matter can be classified into the following groups:

Classification of Non-living Things: Metals and Non-metals

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<h1><strong>CLASSIFICATION OF NON LIVING THINGS</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Classification of Non-living Things</li> <li>Metals - Properties and Uses of Metals</li> <li>Non-Metals - Properties and Uses of Non metals</li> </ol> <br> <h2><strong>Classification of Non-living Things</strong></h2> Non-living things in the environment can be grouped into metals and non-metal depending on their properties. <h2><strong>Metals</strong></h2> They are generally solids except for mercury, which exists in liquid state. Examples are copper, iron rod, empty cans, aluminum, silver, gold, lead etc. <img class="size-full wp-image-32424 aligncenter" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/metals-and-non-metals.jpg" alt="Classification of non living things - Metals and non metals" width="316" height="147" /> <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>Copper-Coated Pennies</strong></p> <span style="color: #008000;">Most coins used the United States contain copper. Pennies, <em>shown here,</em> are made of zinc with a thin coating of copper. They actually have less copper than other U.S. coins!</span> <h3><strong>Properties of Metals</strong></h3> The following are the properties of metals:

Energy: Meaning; Sources and Forms of Energy

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<h1><strong>MEANING, SOURCES AND FORMS OF ENERGY </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Energy</li> <li>Sources of Energy</li> <li>Forms of Energy</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Energy</strong></h2> Energy is the ability or capacity of the body to do work. Anything which possesses the ability to exert a force is having energy. Energy is a measure of the ability to do work and is absolutely necessary for everything including life itself. For example, if an object is moved from one point to another, work has been done. Work requires the use of energy. It is the energy that enables us to do work. <h2><strong>Sources of Energy</strong></h2> Energy is gotten from the following sources:

Transformation of Energy; Uses of Energy

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<h1><strong>TRANSFORMATION AND USES OF ENERGY</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Transformation of Energy</li> <li>Uses of Energy</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Transformation of Energy </strong></h2> Energy changes happen daily around us. The law of Conservation of energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed but it can change from one form to another. The following are examples of transformation of energy: <ol> <li>Mechanical Energy → Heat energy e.g. rubbing two surfaces against each other</li> <li>Chemical energy → Light energy e.g. torch light battery.</li> <li>Sound Energy → Electrical energy e.g. microphone, loudspeaker</li>

Renewable and Non-renewable Energy

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<h1><strong>RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY</strong></h1> CONTENT Renewable Energy <ol> <li>Meaning of Renewable Energy</li> <li>Uses/Advantages of Renewable Energy</li> <li>Misuse/Disadvantages of Renewable Energy</li> </ol> Non-renewable Energy <ol> <li>Meaning of Non-renewable Energy</li> <li>Uses/Advantages of Non-renewable Energy</li> <li>Misuse/Disadvantages of Non-renewable Energy</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Renewable Energy </strong></h2> <h3><strong>Meaning of Renewable Energy</strong></h3> Renewable is the energy from a source that can last forever or that is replaced naturally. Examples of renewable energy are: (i) Solar energy (ii) Wave energy (iii) Hydro-energy from hydroelectric dams that have generators turned by water to produce electricity (e.g. Kanji dam, Shiroro dam). (iv) Biomass/Biofuels (v) Wind energy which is a source of energy used to run windmills to produce electricity. Wind power is not common in Nigeria as in overseas countries. Sun, wind and water will always exist and hence termed renewable energy. <h3><strong>Uses/Advantages of Renewable Energy</strong></h3> Renewable energy is useful or advantageous for the following reasons:

Energy and Society

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<h1><strong>ENERGY AND SOCIETY </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Energy and Society</li> <li>Effects of Energy on Society</li> <li>Ways Through Which Lack of Energy Supply Affects Societal Development</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Energy and Society</strong></h2> Energy is one of the basic needs of all mankind that is necessary for survival and societal development. <p style="text-align: center;"><img class="size-full wp-image-32437 aligncenter" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/energy-and-society-solar-power.jpg" alt="Renewable and Non-renewable energy - Energy and society - Solar power" width="451" height="263" /><strong>Solar Power</strong></p> <span style="color: #008000;">These solar panels convert energy from sunlight directly into electricity. Solar power is a renewable source of energy - it will never run out.</span> <h2><strong>Effects of Energy on Society</strong></h2> Energy has become more necessary in the following areas:

Introduction to Basic Science

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<h1><strong>INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Definition of Science</li> <li>How to Study Science</li> <li>The Branches of Science</li> <li>Uses of Science</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Definition of Science </strong></h2> Science is the systematic study of nature. Basic science is a subject that introduces sciences to mankind. <h2><strong>How to Study Science </strong></h2> Science is studied through the following ways:

Force: Meaning; Types and Uses of Force

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<h1><strong>MEANING AND TYPES OF FORCE</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Definition of Force</li> <li>Mathematical Expression of Force</li> <li>Types of Forces</li> <li>Differences between Gravitational Force and Magnetic Force</li> <li>Uses of Force</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Definition of Force</strong></h2> Force is any action that moves an object or alters its uniform motion in a given direction. Force is the product of mass of the objects and its acceleration. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force required to move it. Examples of force are pull, push, tension forces and frictional force between surfaces. <strong>Force is measured in Newton.</strong> <h2><strong>Mathematical Expression of Force</strong></h2> F ά mass × acceleration F = ma, where m = mass and a = acceleration due to gravity <h2><strong>Types of Forces </strong></h2> There are two types of force. These are; <ol> <li>Contact force</li> <li>Non-contact force/force field</li> </ol> <h3><strong>Contact Force </strong></h3>

Family Health: Sanitation

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<h1><strong>FAMILY HEALTH - SANITATION</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>The Meaning of Sanitation</li> <li>Types of Sanitation</li> <li>How to Carry Out Personal Cleanliness</li> <li>Advantages of Observing Personal Cleanliness</li> <li>Disadvantages of Not Observing Personal Cleanliness</li> <li>The Importance of Sanitation</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>The Meaning of Sanitation</strong></h2> Sanitation is the removal of all kinds of waste that could be considered unpleasant from our immediate environment, in order to keep ourselves and our environment clean and healthy. <h2><strong>Types of Sanitation</strong></h2> The types of sanitation are as follows: (i) <strong>Environmental Sanitation:</strong> This refers to the practice or ways of keeping our surrounding clean and healthy by removing all kinds of waste from our rooms, toilets, bathrooms, kitchens and surroundings such as markets, schools etc. (ii)<strong> Personal cleanliness:</strong> This is the keeping of one’s body and personal belongings neat, clean and tidy always. Personal cleanliness is important for health because it prevents very tiny organisms (micro-organisms) which can cause diseases.   <h2><strong>How to Carry Out Personal Cleanliness</strong></h2> We can carry out personal cleanliness by doing the following:

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