Distribution of Crops in Nigeria

<h1><strong>DISTRIBUTION OF CROPS IN NIGERIA </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Distribution of Crops in Nigeria</li> <li>Distribution of Crops of Nigeria</li> <li>Factors Affecting the Distribution of Crops</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Distribution of Crops in Nigeria</strong></h2> This refers to the region where each particular crop is mostly adapted in Nigeria. <h2><strong>Distribution of Crops of Nigeria</strong></h2> As you move from the south to the north of the country, the vegetation gradually changes from forest to savanna.There is, of course, no sharp distinction between one forest zone and the other. The vegetation types rather merged into one another. This is due to the gradual change in climatic conditions in the various regions/zones.

Pre-planting Operations

<h1><strong>PRE-PLANTING OPERATIONS </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Definition of Cultural Practices</li> <li>Types of Cultural Practices</li> <li>Pre-planting Operations</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Definition of Cultural Practices</strong></h2> Cultural practices or operations refer to all the operations carried out on the farm from the beginning of the farming season to the end of the season. <h2><strong>Types of Cultural Practices</strong></h2> Cultural operations can be classified as; <ul> <li>Pre-planting operations</li> <li>Planting operations</li> <li>Post-planting operations</li> </ul> <h2><strong>Pre-planting Operations</strong></h2> These are the farming activities carried out before planting is done. These activities are carried out to prepare and make the soil conducive for the crop to be planted.<strong>Pre-planting operations in sequence are: </strong>selection of the site, surveying of the soil and land measurement, clearing, stumping, field plotting or farm layout, tilling or ridging, ploughing, harrowing, nursery and nursery practices. <h3>1. <strong>Selection or Choice of Site</strong></h3> The site selected should suit the purpose of production in term of size, fertility of the soil, topography, accessibility, availability of water <h3><strong>Factors Guiding the Siting or Choice of (Location) of a Farm</strong></h3> The success of a farm depends partly on the characteristics of the site on which the farm is located. Therefore, when choosing the site for a farm, a farmer considers the following important factors:(i)<strong> Availability of land</strong>: The size of the farm depends on the amount of land available.

Effects of Forest on the Environment

<h1><strong>EFFECTS OF FORESTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Other Uses/Benefits of Forest Resources</li> <li>Importance of Forest</li> <li>Effects of Forest on the Environment</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Other Uses/Benefits of Forest Resources</strong></h2> There are some other benefits of the forest which cannot be quantified in terms of monetary value but which is of great importance to people. These are: <ol> <li>Forest checks erosion of soil.</li> <li>It provides man with sources of food, shelter and protection.</li> <li>It is a source of raw materials for industries.</li> <li>It provides good sources of foreign exchange earnings.</li> <li>Forest resources provide recreational facilities.</li> <li>It provides employment opportunities for people as guards.</li> <li>Forest provides shelter for wildlife and serves as a tourist centre.</li> <li>Forest provides medicinal herbs.</li> <li>It is an important source of fuel for people.</li> </ol> <br> <h2>Importance of Forest</h2> The following are the importance of forest:

Effects of Crop Pests on Yield; Economic Importance of Pests

<h1><strong>EFFECTS OF CROP PESTS ON YIELD</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Effects of Crop Pests on Yield</li> <li>Economic Importance of Pests</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Effects of Crop Pests on Yield</strong></h2> Crop pests have the following effects on crop yield: <ol> <li>Heavy attack by pests may result in total crop failure.</li> <li>Infected seeds, crops, and vegetables have low market value.</li> <li>Pests reduce the quality of crops.</li> <li>Pests eat up leaves of crops, thereby reducing the photosynthetic activity of the plant.</li> <li>They cause injury which may predisposes crop to diseases attack.</li>

Land and its Uses

<h1><strong>LAND AND ITS USES</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Land</li> <li>Characteristics of Land</li> <li>Classification of Land</li> <li>Factors Affecting Land Availability and Uses</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Meaning of Land </strong></h2> Land can be defined as the solid part of the earth’s surface which comprise of water, air , soil, rocks, minerals, natural vegetation and animals and which is suitable for agricultural production. It can also be defined as the uppermost layer of the earth's crust on which agricultural and non-agricultural activities are carried out.  <h2><strong>Characteristics of Land</strong></h2> The following are the characteristics of land: <ol> <li>Land is a free gift of nature</li> <li>it is immobile</li> <li>limited in supply</li> <li>It is a factor of agricultural production.</li> <li>Land can appreciate and depreciate over time</li> <li>It is heterogeneous in quality. i.e. it differs in one place to the another in area of the topography,texture,structure,fertility etc.</li> <li>The reward for land is rent.</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Classification of Land</strong></h2> <h3><strong>Classification of Land Based on Use</strong></h3> Land can be classified based on the uses they are put into. Thus we have: <h4><strong>Agricultural Land </strong></h4> This include land for; <ul> <li>Crop production</li> <li>Livestock production and fisheries</li> <li>Forestry</li> <li>Wildlife conservation</li> </ul> <h5><strong>Uses of Land for Agricultural Production</strong></h5> <h6>(i) <strong>Production of Crops </strong></h6> Land is used for producing both food crops like yam, maize, rice, cassava, cowpea etcand cash crops like cocoa, rubber, oil palm, cotton etc.land used for these activities is usually fertile<strong>Importance or Merits of Production of Crops </strong>The importance of crops include;

Common Types of Ornamental Plants

<h1>COMMON TYPES OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Types of Ornamental Plants According to their Uses</li> <li>Settings and Location for Planting Each Type of Ornamental Plant</li> </ol>   <h2>Types of Ornamental Plants According to their Uses</h2> <strong>Ornamental plants</strong> can be used differently due to the different nature and unique features exhibited by these plants. Based on the different uses ornamental plants can be classified into:1.<strong> Hedging plants:</strong> These are mainly shrubs and trees often used as hedges in gardens, homes, offices or similar structures. Examples of such plants are: <ul> <li>Pride of Barbados (Caesalpinia pulcherrima)</li> <li>Alamanda (Allamanda cathartica)</li> <li>Wild Rose (Rosa aciculris)</li> <li>Hibiscus (Hibiscus spp)</li> <li>Ixora (Ixora coccinea)</li> <li>Crotons (Codiaeum variagatum)</li> </ul> 2. <strong>Bedding plants: </strong>These are mostly flowering plants used for decorative or commercial purposes in hones or gardens. An example is

Principles of Demand and Supply

<h1>PRINCIPLES OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Demand and Law of Demand</li> <li>The Demand Schedule and Demand Curve</li> <li>Factors Affecting the Demand for Agricultural Produce</li> <li>Movement along the Demand Curve</li> <li>Shift in Demand Curve</li> <li>Elasticity of Demand</li> <li>Meaning of Supply and Law of Supply</li> <li>The Supply Schedule and Supply Curve</li> <li>Factors Affecting the Supply of Agricultural Produce</li> <li>Elasticity of Supply</li> <li>Price Determination</li> </ol>   <h2>Meaning of Demand</h2> Demand can be defined as the quantity of a commodity that an individual is willing and able to buy at a specific price within a given period of time. Demand is more than the desire to have something. It must be backed with the ability to pay the price.  <h2>The Law of Demand</h2> This law states that there is inverse relationship between the price and the quantity of produce demanded. It therefore means that the higher the price the lower the quantity demanded.  <h2>The Demand Schedule</h2> Makes the law of demand explicit. It shows the relationship between the price and the quantity of the commodity demanded. Demand schedule shows the amount of a commodity that a person will buy at various prices in a given period.

Marketing of Agricultural Produce in Nigeria

<h1>MARKETING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE IN NIGERIA</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Marketing Functions</li> <li>Marketing of Export Crops</li> <li>Importance of Exporting Agricultural Produce</li> <li>Measures taken by Government to Promote Exportation of Crops and Livestock Products in Nigeria</li> <li>Steps Involved in Exporting Agricultural Produce</li> <li>Corporate Bodies, Cooperative Societies and Individuals Engaged in Exporting Agricultural Products</li> <li>Problems of Agricultural Marketing</li> </ol>   <h2>Marketing Functions</h2> Marketing functions are the activities of the various marketing agents on the farm produce to be offered for sale. They are otherwise known as marketing functions and services carried out before the produce reaches the final consumer. These marketing functions are;(i)<strong> Farm-level Processing: </strong>This is the immediate processing of farm produce after harvesting in readiness for market. For example, cocoa processing, drying of farm produce and cleaning of farm produce.(ii)<strong> Grading or Sorting: </strong>This is the grouping of farm produce into various sizes, weights and quality for easy handling.(iii)<strong> Packaging: </strong>This is the loading of farm produce into various packs and labeling of the graded commodities. It can be describe as the technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sales and use. Packaging contains, protects, informs and sells the product.(iv)<strong> Storage or warehousing: </strong>This is the keeping of the farm produce in a store for a period of time before sales or export.(v)<strong> Transportation: </strong>This is the movement of produce from one location to another; that is from the store house to the market or port for exports.

Uses of Crops

<h1><strong>USES OF CROPS </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Uses of Crops</li> <li>Uses of Crop by-products</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Uses of Crops</strong></h2> There are many uses of crops. These include: <ol> <li>Provision of food for humans</li> <li>It provides shelter (houses) for people to live.</li> <li>Clothing materials are made from crop materials e.g. cotton.</li> <li>Crops planted can be used to control erosion.</li> <li>Some crops are used as ornamentals such as flower to decorate and beautify our surroundings.</li>

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