<h1><strong>DEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Definition of Agriculture</li> <li>Importance of Agriculture to the Individual</li> <li>Importance of Agriculture to the Society</li> <li>Importance of Agriculture to the Nation</li> <li>Types of Agriculture based on Levels of Production: Subsistence & Commercial Agriculture</li> </ol> <br> <h2><strong>Definition of Agriculture</strong></h2> Agriculture can be defined as the art and science which deals with the growing of crops and rearing of animals for man’s use. <h2><strong>Importance of Agriculture </strong></h2> Agriculture plays an important role in the development of all nations. It used to be the mainstay of Nigeria’s economy and that of other developing countries. The importance of agriculture can be grouped into three categories: <h2><strong>Importance of Agriculture to the Individual</strong></h2> <ol> <li><strong>Provision of food:</strong> This is the <strong>most</strong> important contribution of agriculture to man because food is required for our survival. People need food in order to live. Farm animals also need food. The food could be meat, eggs, and milk from farm animals and products from many different crops such as yam, rice, maize etc.</li> <li><strong>Provision of shelter materials:</strong> This help to protect man from adverse weather conditions and predators. Agriculture is a source of materials used in building houses. Materials such as timbers and leaves are used in building houses.</li> <li><strong>Provision of materials for clothing</strong>: Agriculture provides fibre, silk and cotton from plants for textile production, hides and skins as well as wool from sheep for clothing, shoes, belts and bags.</li>
<h1><strong>CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS BASED ON MODE OF REPRODUCTION</strong></h1> CONTENT Classification of Farm Animals based on Mode of Reproduction <ol> <li>Mammals</li> <li>Non-mammals</li> </ol> <h2><strong>Classification of Farm Animals based on Mode of Reproduction</strong></h2> Using this criteria, farm animals can be classified into two groups, which are: <ul> <li>Mammals (viviparous farm animals)</li> <li>Non-mammals (oviparous farm animals)</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Mammals </strong></h3> Mammals are animals that give birth to their young ones alive and have their bodies covered with hair or fur.
<h1><strong>BOOK-KEEPING AND BOOK-KEEPING ETHICS</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Book-keeping</li> <li>Purpose of Book-keeping:</li> <li>Book-keeping Ethics</li> </ol> <h2><strong>Meaning of Book-keeping</strong></h2> Book keeping is the record of what is bought, sold, owned and owed, what money comes in, what goes out and what is left. Book-keeping is the act of recording business transactions in a regular and systematic manner, such that the record would be in a permanent form for the following purposes. <h2><strong>Purpose of Book-keeping</strong></h2> The purpose of book-keeping are as follows:
<h1>PASTURE AND FORAGE CROPS</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Pasture and Forage Crops</li> <li>Uses of Forage/Pasture Crops</li> <li>Types of Pasture</li> <li>Common Grasses and Legumes</li> <li>Description of Grasses and Legumes</li> <li>Factors Affecting the Distribution and Productivity of Pasture</li> <li>Establishment and Management of Pasture</li> <li>Determination of Plant Population</li> </ol> <h2>Meaning of Pasture and Forage Crops</h2> A pasture is an area of land on which grasses and legumes (forages) grow for animals to graze. Forage crops are plants cultivated for their vegetative portions in a pasture and are used either in fresh or preserved for feeding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goat. They may be harvested and fed to the animals in their shed (soiling/zero grazing) or animals are allowed to graze directly on the field. <img class="size-full wp-image-52037 aligncenter" src="https://classhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/pasture-and-forage-crops.jpg" alt="Pasture and forage crops" width="498" height="194" /> <h2>Uses of Forage/Pasture Crops</h2> Forage and pasture crops are used for the following: <ol> <li>Forages account for a major source of food for ruminant animals</li> <li>They serve as cover crops to conserve soil moisture and prevent soil erosion.</li> <li>They could be used as green manure e.g forage legumes</li> <li>They can be used for roofing farm stead e.g grasses</li> <li>They can also be used as bedding materials for animals</li> <li>They can fix atmospheric nitrogen into the soil</li> <li>Forage legumes increase proteins content of the pasture, add to palatability as well as increasing the nitrogen content of the soil.</li> <li>If properly managed and planned, it could be a source of balanced diet.</li> </ol> EVALUATION <ol> <li>What do you understand by the term pasture?</li> <li>State five importances of forages in livestock production.</li> </ol> <h2>Types of Pasture</h2> There are two main types of pasture: the natural and artificial pastures: 1. <strong>The Natural Pasture</strong>: The Natural Pasture otherwise known as range land is an extensive grassland containing forage grasses and legumes, straws and other wildlife. An example of Natural Pasture is Savanna areas. They are not planted by man. <h3>Characteristics of Natural Pasture</h3>
<h1>DISEASES OF CROPS</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Disease</li> <li>Diseases of Major Crops</li> <li>Causes of Diseases</li> <li>Brief Explanations on Disease-causing Organisms</li> <li>General Effects of Disease on Crop Plants</li> <li>Diseases of Major Crops (detailed)</li> </ol> <h2>Meaning of Disease</h2> A disease is a departure from normal state of health, presenting marked symptoms or outward visible signs. A disease is also defined as a condition of disorder in the functioning of the tissues of an organism. It is an unfavorable condition caused by infections by pathogens or deficiency or excess of some environmental factors which result in physiological and anatomical dysfunctions expressed in characteristic symptoms. <h2>Diseases of Major Crops</h2> The following are the diseases of major crops: (i) Cereals – Smut, rice blast, etc. (ii) Legumes - Cercospora, leaf spot, rosette, etc. (iii) Beverages - Cocoa black pod, coffee leaf rust, etc. (iv) Tuber - Cassava mosaic, bacterial leaf blight, etc. (v) Fruits - Citrus Gummosis, Diebacks, etc. (vi) Fiber - Black arm (bacterial blight of cotton) (vii) Vegetables - Root knot of tomato or okra, etc. (viii) Stored produce - Mould <h2>Causes of Diseases</h2> <h3>(i) Pathogen Diseases</h3> These are diseases caused by living microorganisms called pathogens. e.g.