Parts of Flowering Plants and their Functions

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<h1><strong>PARTS OF FLOWERING PLANTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Parts of Flowering Plant and their Functions</li> <li>Important Terms</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Parts of a Flowering Plant </strong></h2> A flowering plant is made up of two parts, namely; <ol> <li>the root system</li> <li>the shoot system</li> </ol> <h3>1.<strong> Root System: </strong></h3> The root system refers to the portion of the plant which develops inside the soil. The root has many tiny structures on it called the root hairs through which water, mineral salts and other nutrients are absorbed by the plant through a process known as <strong>osmosis. </strong> The root system is divided into two main types namely; <ol> <li>Tap/main root</li> <li>Fibrous/adventitious</li> </ol> <p style="text-align: center;"><img class="size-full wp-image-31956 aligncenter" src="" alt="" width="634" height="322" /><strong>A Labelled Diagram of a Flowering Plant </strong></p> <h4><strong>Functions of the Root</strong></h4> (i)<strong> Anchorage:</strong> for holding the plant firmly to the ground. (ii)<strong> Nutrient absorption:</strong> Roots absorbs water and mineral elements from the soil which are then pass unto other plant parts. This is the most important function of the root to the plant. (iii)<strong> Storage</strong>: In some plants the roots acts as storage organs e.g carrot, cassava, etc. (iv)<strong> Reproduction</strong>: Some plants used their roots for vegetative propagation e.g. bread fruit, sweet potato, citrus etc. (v)<strong> Nutrient fixation:</strong> Roots of leguminous crops harbors some nitrogen fixing bacteria which helps to convert atmospheric nitrogen into soil nitrate for plant use. (vi)<strong> Erosion control:</strong> Root of grasses help to bind soil particles together thus preventing erosion.

Definition and Characteristics of Weeds

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<h1><strong>DEFINITION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WEEDS </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Definition of Weeds</li> <li>Some Common Weeds</li> <li>Characteristics of Weeds</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Definition of Weeds</strong></h2> Weeds are plants growing where they are not wanted or cultivated. A plant may be weed in one farm but crop in another farm. For instance, a cowpea plant growing in a cassava plot is a weed. <h2><strong>Some Common Weeds</strong></h2> <p style="text-align: center;"><img class="size-full wp-image-36103 aligncenter" src="" alt="Meaning of weeds - Characteristics of weeds - Some common weeds - Sida acuta" width="604" height="195" /><strong>Sida acuta</strong></p>

Advantages and Disadvantages of Crop Propagation

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<h1><strong>ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CROP ROTATION</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Advantages of Sexual Propagation</li> <li>Disadvantages of Sexual Propagation</li> <li>Advantages of Asexual Propagation</li> <li>Disadvantages of Asexual/Vegetative Propagation</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Advantages and Disadvantages of Propagation by Seeds</strong></h2> <h3><strong>Advantages of Sexual Propagation</strong></h3> The following are the advantages of sexual propagation of seeds: <ol> <li>Seeds are light and can easily be transported.</li> <li>Seeds are relatively cheaper.</li> <li>Seeds are easy to to procure.</li> <li>It is very easy to practice, that is, seeds can be carried conveniently to the farm.</li>

Fish Processing and Preservation Methods

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<h1><strong>PRESERVATION OF FISH</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Fish Preservation</li> <li>Methods of Fish Preservation</li> </ol> <h2><strong>Meaning of Fish Preservation</strong></h2> Fish preservation is the way of taking good care of fish after it has been captured in order to prevent it from going bad. Methods of preserving fish include the following: <h2><strong>Methods of Fish Preservation</strong></h2> <ol> <li>Sun drying: Removes water by evaporation and its cheap.</li>

Importance of Stock Exchange in Agriculture

<h1><strong>IMPORTANCE OF STOCK EXCHANGE IN AGRICULTURE </strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>The Importance of Stock Exchange in Agriculture</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>The Importance of Stock Exchange in Agriculture</strong></h2> The following are the importance of stock exchange in agriculture: 1. It encourages investment in agriculture by providing a place for buyers and sellers of securities. 2. Redistribution of wealth. 3. It provides platform where government can generate income to finance her various activities.

Soil Formation and Profile Development

<h1><strong>SOIL FORMATION AND PROFILE DEVELOPMENT</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Introduction</li> <li>Factors of Soil Formation</li> <li>Processes of Soil Formation</li> <li>Soil Profile Development</li> <li>Importance of Soil Profile<u></u></li> </ol> <strong> </strong> <h2><strong>Introduction</strong></h2> The soil is a very important factor for agricultural activity and the survival of man. Soil is the loose weathered material covering the surface of the earth, which supports life. It can also be defined as the outermost part of the earth that is formed from the mixture of minerals and decaying organic matter which extends from the surface down to the limit of biological forces.   <h2><strong>Factors of Soil Formation</strong></h2> The transformation of rocks into soil is referred to as soil formation. The first stage in the process of soil formation is the <strong>Weathering of rocks</strong> which involves the breaking of rocks into smaller particles and eventually into individual minerals that the rock is composed of. Weathering of rock can either be<strong> physica</strong>l such as through water, wind, Pressure, ice and temperature, or <strong>chemical </strong>which involves changes in the chemical composition of the rock.There are a number of factors that influence the rate, type and quality of soil formed in a location. There are five factors that determine or influence soil formation, namely: 1. Parent material <ul> <li>Climate</li> <li>Topography</li> <li>Living organisms</li> <li>Time</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Parent Material</strong></h3> The type of materials, that is structure, texture, and mineral composition present in the parent rock will also determine the type of soil formed. Parent materials are important in the following ways:


<h1>IRRIGATION SYSTEM</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Meaning of Irrigation System</li> <li>Importance of Irrigation System</li> <li>Problems of Irrigation System</li> <li>Types of Irrigation System</li> </ol>   <h2>Meaning of Irrigation System</h2> Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil for the purpose of supplying moisture for plant growth. This is because water is the most important determining factor in crop production   <h2>Importance of Irrigation System</h2> Irrigation is important in agriculture for the following reasons: <ol> <li>Provision of moisture necessary for plant growth.</li> <li>It increases yield of crops.</li> <li>It improves microbial decomposition of organic matter to release crop nutrients.</li> <li>It cools the soil temperature in the hot and dry season.</li> <li>It reduces harmful accumulated salt in the soil.</li> <li>It makes for all year round cultivation and crop production.</li> <li>It facilitates seed germination and enable the crops to be well established when rainfall is not steady.</li> <li>It reduces the hazard of soil caking.</li> <li>It stabilizes the farmer’s economy since production is not seasonal or erratic.</li> </ol>   <h2>Problems of Irrigation System</h2> The following are the problems of irrigation system:

Types and Classification of Farm Animals

<h1>TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Definition of Farm Animals</li> <li>Types of Farm Animals</li> <li>Classification of Farm Animals</li> </ol>   <h2>Definition of Farm Animals</h2> Farm animals are essentially those animals that have been domesticated for production purposes and for other benefits of man. Farm animals vary in their individual characteristics. These include avian species, mammalian species and aquatic species. <img class="size-full wp-image-53393 aligncenter" src="" alt="Types and Classification of Farm Animals" width="462" height="388" />   <h2>Types of Farm Animals</h2> <h3>(i) Avian Species</h3> This group belongs to all domesticated birds such as domestic fowl, ducks, turkeys, geese, guinea fowl, swarms, pigeons, pheasants, canaries and ostriches. These lay eggs and are therefore refer to as Oviparous animals. <h3>(ii) Mammalian Species</h3> This group consists of the domestic four-footed animals which include cattle, sheep, goat, pigs, horses, donkeys and camels. They give birth to their young ones alive and as such, they are referred to as Viviparous animals. <h3>(iii) Aquatic Species</h3> This group consists of animals living and reproducing in both fresh and salt water bodies eg fishes, crabs, snails, crustaceans etc. EVALUATION <ol> <li>Define the term farm animals.</li> <li>State the three major types of farm animals and give two examples.</li> </ol>   <h2>Classification of Farm Animals</h2> Farm animals are generally classified on the basis of their habitat, uses, digestion, reproduction, etc. <h3>A. Habitat</h3> Classification under habitat comes under three major divisions, namely;

Agricultural Insurance

<h1>AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE</h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Definition of Agricultural Insurance</li> <li>Importance of Agricultural Insurance</li> <li>Types of Agricultural Insurance Policies</li> <li>Various Agricultural Risks</li> <li>Insurance Terms</li> <li>Problems of Agricultural Insurance</li> </ol>   <h2>Definition of Agricultural Insurance</h2> Generally, insurance is a form of risk management used to absorb the shock of unexpected loss. Agricultural producers have series of risks affecting the income and welfare of their households. These are mainly production risks in relation to weather conditions, pests and diseases and market conditions. Agricultural insurance can be defined as the agreement where one party (insurer) promises to pay another party (insured) of a sum of money in the event of suffering a specified agricultural loss or damage.   <h2>Importance of Agricultural Insurance</h2> The following are the importance of agricultural insurance: <ol> <li>It help to give the farmers or investors peace of mind because the insurance policy will meet the financial consequences of certain risks.</li> <li>It inculcate savings habit in farmers as to prepare them for future.</li> <li>Insurance certificate can be used as collateral security to secure loans from commercial banks by farmers.</li> <li>It help to contribute to the invisible earnings of the country i.e. foreign exchange.</li> <li>Life insurance can be used as a means of preparing for old age of a farmer.</li> <li>Insurance makes fund available for investment in agriculture.</li> <li>Losses are controlled by agricultural insurance by reducing the frequency and severity of losses.</li> <li>Social benefits such as employment opportunities,job security and continued contributions to nation building are encouraged by agricultural insurance policy because business is kept alive as long as the financial consequences of certain losses are met by the insurance.</li> </ol>   <h2>Types of Agricultural Insurance Policies</h2> The types of insurance policies include the following:

Classification of Crops based on Crop Plant Forms: Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous Plants

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<h1><strong>MONOCOTYLEDONOUS AND DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS</strong></h1> CONTENT <ol> <li>Classification of Crops based on Crop Plant Forms</li> <li>Monocotyledonous Crops e.g. maize, guinea corn</li> <li>Dicotyledonous Crops e.g. beans, melon</li> <li>Differences between Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons</li> </ol>   <h2><strong>Classification of Crops based on C</strong><strong>rop Plant Forms</strong></h2> A crop is any plant that has a useful purpose or economic value. Crop plants are grouped into two forms based on the structure of their seeds or the number of seed leaf it contains. Seed leaf is otherwise known as <strong>cotyledon</strong>. Food for germinating seed is stored in the cotyledon. <h2><strong>Monocotyledonous Plants</strong></h2> These are plants with one seed leaf or cotyledons e.g. oil palm, coconut, banana, plantain, pineapple, date-palm, garlic, sugar-cane, cereals e.g. wheat, millet, rice, maize, sorghum, rye, barley, oats and all grasses e.g. guinea grass, carpet grass, etc.

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