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1. Succession

(i) Meaning of succession

(ii) Structural changes in species composition, variety and increase in number.

(iii) Primary succession (a) Aquatic and (b) Terrestrial habitat

(iv) Secondary succession-Meaning and examples

(v) Characteristics of a stable community.

2. Overcrowding

(i) Population density

(ii) Important factors affecting population



Succession can be defined as the series of progressive changes at different times in plants and animals communities in a given habitat until a stable community is established.

This succession is a result of changes in form, structure, composition, variety and numbers of plants and animals communities in a particular habitat over a period of time.

It occurs in newly formed natural habitats such as bare rocks, seashore or pond. It can also take place in artificial habitats such as abandoned farmlands, cultivated forests or grassland.

A stable or climax community takes a long time to form as it is usually gradual. The organism of a stable community has structural appearance that is now definite and may not change.

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